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Token of Love- the shiny “pricey” little thing Wedding Ring Culture is a way of life. It is something that refers to the expressive side of human life. It can be an object, a behavior, a symbol, interpretation or belief. Culture is that invisible bond that ties people of certain community together. It is a system of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people. It is an accumulated experience which is socially transmitted. Culture consists of patterns and is passed from generation to generation. Culture is important because it gives an individual a unique identity.

It shapes the personality of community and gives them its characters of their own. Culture is an integral part of living. It is learned and passed from one generation to another. As I said, culture can be a symbol like language, art, or religion and those cultural values are transferred between generations. “Culture is seen as a system of social control, wherein people shape their standards and behavior. ” (Unknown). Cultural object is “a socially meaningful expression that is audible, visible, tangible, or can be articulated” (Griswold, 2008).

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As we said in class, a cultural object tells a story in many different ways. We are analyzing cultural objects to find out what our cultural object can tell us about our culture and society. It is difficult to make claims about culture as a whole but is not impossible. When analyzing cultural object we need to focus on the society “the world around” the object not just the object itself. Different people have different opinions and views about everything so when analyzing a cultural object it is very important to look at the things around it too.

I have chosen a wedding ring as my cultural object for many reasons. First of all, I’m married and I have one, second I’m from Europe (Poland) and over there people wear their wedding rings on their right hand finger. In United Stated people wear their wedding ring on left hand finger so people were constantly asking me why I am wearing my wedding ring on my right hand finger instead left one. I wear my wedding band on my left hand finger now, because I was tired of explaining people why it is on my right hand finger.

Sometimes they asked me more detailed questions and I was really tired of explaining it to everyone, especially when I worked in small boutique with women’s clothes and those ladies loved to talk and ask questions about everything. When I had to pick a cultural object I chose wedding ring so I could do some research about it. I’m really curious about the history of wedding rings. When I began searching for information I found out that it is very difficult to find information about history of wedding rings. There is so many websites that give different information and not really the one I need.

But the more I couldn’t find anything the more I wanted to know about history of wedding rings. Fortunately books became very helpful. Other people should think that this cultural object is interesting because wedding ring is something that every married person owns. Wedding ring means different things to everybody. It is very “pricey” item but does the price really express the love? Some people say it does other that it doesn’t. Wedding ring is very interesting object overall. It means different things to different people. For some people it symbolize love for others divorce.

In this paper I will analyze wedding ring. My paper will be divided into three sections. First I will analyze the cultural creator. Although, I can’t provide a name of the person who came to the idea to create wedding ring, but I will talk about the first people who owned wedding rings and how the culture and tradition of wearing them changed over time. It is impossible for me to give a name of the creator because the first wedding rings traditions came from 2800 B. C. but I will talk about the history of wedding rings since 2800 B. C. to present and how they are viewed in United States.

In the second section of this paper I will analyze the mass production and distribution of wedding rings. I will talk about how did this process changed over time and how is the object advertised. To do so, I will use The Culture Industry System model created by Richard Peterson to analyze the mass producers, distributors, and the consumers. I will talk about how the mass production and distribution process changed the wedding rings over the time. I also will look at the ways corporations advertise this product, and the way they play with people’s emotions and beliefs.

At the end, I will talk how movies and famous celebrity influence people to wear wedding rings. In the third and final section of this paper I will talk about the consumers; the audience reception. I will look at the audience response to the wedding rings and what does the ring really mean to them. In this section I will also mention how different groups of people react to this object. I will also talk how feminist, different religions and different cultures view wedding rings. Section One: The people in love created it. It is very difficult to say who created wedding ring; who was the creator.

After doing some research, it seems like people created wedding ring. The first married people wanted to symbolize their marriage somehow, so they came up with wedding rings. Very early in the history of human race the promise of eternal love and commitment between two people took hold and it is on to this day. The meaning stayed the same and only the material that the wedding rings were made out of changed over time. I argue that the time and traditions shaped my cultural object: wedding ring. In what follows I will explain how different cultures and time shaped social construction of wedding ring.

The first known exchange of wedding ring as object of love took place in Egypt, around 2800 B. C. Those first wedding rings were made out of plants (grass). As today they were in shape of circle which symbolized life, happiness, and love and that those three had no beginning and no end. At that time only wealthy people could afford jewelry wedding rings. Those rings were made out of gold because Egyptians believed that the “gold was the substance of the sun, the flesh of gods, who were associated with eternity. ”(Gad, 2004). The Romans gave the same meaning to their wedding rings. Plautus in 254-184 B. C. entioned wedding rings in Roman literature as first. For Roman woman wearing wedding ring meant legal agreement of ownership by her husband. (Rao, 2003). Roman’s wedding rings were made out of iron. More than 2,000 years in Asia puzzle rings came out next and were used as wedding rings. Religion had also something to do with wearing wedding rings. From the fourth century on, when Christianity spread throughout Western Europe, the wedding ring became symbolic of spouses’ unity with Christ. (Gad, 2004). During the Renaissance, and throughout the seventeenth century sterling silver for wedding rings became used. Rao, 2003). Due to the changes in society and innovations in politics during the seventeenth and eighteenth century the material and designs that wedding rings were made out changed. White gold in addition to the traditional yellow became popular. (Gad, p34, 2004). Because of the Romantic era of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries wedding rings become popular as the romantic symbol. Wedding rings were brought to the United States by Puritans in seventeenth century. Colonial Americans treaded wedding thimbles instead of rings, arguing that thimbles were acceptable because they were practical. Rao, 2003). In the late 1700s, in United States, only celebrities and wealthy people were wearing wedding rings because only they could afford them, and only women wore the ring not men. Tiffany & Company jewelry store was the first one in United States to sell wedding rings. In the late 1840s, in New York only plain and made out of gold wedding rings were in style. (Gad, 2004). During the Industrial Revolution (18th and 19th centuries), the mass production on many items, including wedding rings made them affordable and popular in the United States.

It was the time when the white gold and platinum for rings became popular. In 1920s and 1930s many wedding rings featured stones, usually diamond all around the ring. During the WWII men became wearing wedding rings as well. The war separated couples and the ring helped remind the man about his wife left back at home and it symbolized his love and commitment to her. In the time of WWII there was a rise of gold used in bridal jewelry due to the platinum usage being restricted to military purpose. (Wexler). In the 1970s, matching wedding rings for bride and the groom became popular.

At this time people had more money so they could afford to buy rings they liked. Money play a big role when it comes to wedding rings. In 1999 wedding ring and matching engagement rings became popular. In 20th century Hollywood played a key role in romantically linked jewelry and love. A diamond ring, whether large or small, was a big star in the ultimate symbol of eternal love, promised and given. (Rao, 2004). Today there is many different kinds of wedding rings available. I can say that the tradition of wearing a wedding ring in United States in quite new.

First, only engagement rings were worn by brides, then wedding ring came in, and after WWII to today’s date not only women but also men are wearing wedding rings to symbolize their love and marriage. Wedding ring became more personal and unique in recent years. Modern wedding rings are made out of gold, white gold, silver, platinum, etc. The wedding sets are very popular between couples; the wedding ring complements the engagement ring and a matching band is offered for the groom. There are diamond, gemstone, and tattooed wedding rings as well. It’s up to people’s taste of style and wallet what kind of wedding rings they have.

The wedding ring as a symbol of the emotional bond between two people became popular throughout the centuries and in all parts of the world. Each culture has adapted the use of the ring to its own customs and beliefs. The fact that the ring is being worn on the fourth finger stayed the same. “In most Anglo – Franco cultures, such as the United States, UK, and Western Europe, the wedding ring is worn on the left hand. While in many Eastern European cultures such as Slovakia, Germany, Finland, Russia, and Poland, the wedding ring is worn on the right hand. (Bernstein, 2007). Wearing the wedding ring on left hand finger comes from Egyptian belief “that vein from the third finger of the left hand ran directly to the heart”. (Gad, 2003). Everyone who wears and cherishes a wedding ring is continuing a tradition that spans the globe of thousands years. In the Jean Twenge’s book “Generation Me” she talks how traditions change over time. The past generations differs from the current one but some traditions stayed the same. Wedding ring is an example of that tradition which stated the same over years and generations.

The previous generations had different wedding rings and beliefs about them but the tradition itself is the same. Wedding ring is the most personal gift between people in love. Twenge mentioned how wedding traditions changed from generation to generation (the wedding dress, wedding style, invitation, etc) but the wedding ring was always there and this tradition didn’t change. It always symbolized the love and commitment between to married people. Section Two: The Industry and Advertisement World War Two; the rise of wedding rings The mass production and distribution process changed the wedding rings over the years.

As I said earlier, the material the wedding rings were made of changed over the time. They went from being made out of found items such as leather, grass, or bone (in Ancient Egypt) to gold, silver, platinum, diamonds, etc, now days. In the late 1700s in United States only wealthy people and celebrities could afford them but the industrial revolution changed things. (Fasel, 2004). The World War Two was the key time in increase in wearing wedding rings by couples, which also led to increase in their sales. It was the time when most wedding rings were sold since they became popular in United States.

At the time of War, wedding rings could be made out of gold only, because platinum and silver were needed for processing and manufacturing weapons and medical instruments. (Gad,2004). During World War Two there was a sharp rise in the demand for wedding rings, and their purchase exceeded the number of weddings. (Gad, 2004). It looks like it was the best time for the producers and distributors of wedding rings to make money out of it. Today the wedding rings can be bought easily and with whatever material the consumer wishes. All jewelry stores such as Tiffany & Co. , Kay Jewelers, Zales, and many more sell wedding rings.

Also the wedding rings can be found in almost every department store such as Wal-Mart or Target, and online stores such as Overtock. com, eBay, or Amazon. com. There are also jewelry online stores, for example bluenile. com, where wedding rings can be bought. Today, they are easy to get and are more affordable than they were during and before World War Two. Why mass producers chose wedding rings. The mass producers selected wedding rings because it is a part of our life style. It is a tradition that was there “forever”. Our parents, grandparent, grand grandparents, etc, owned wedding rings.

Wedding ring is the most personal gift between people in love. The corporate and mass producers knew that wedding rings will bring them profit because regarding the price of the rings, people will buy them anyway. In now days, the wedding ring is present in every wedding. Because of the sentimental value, and the tradition, the wedding rings will be there forever, and the mass producers will always make a profit from them. They just have to come up with new designs, and listen to the feedback of their consumers of what they like and what they want, and their businesses will operate for long time and will bring profit (money) to them.

The most important: advertisement After doing my research and looking at the wedding ring as an object, there isn’t such a need for advertising it as a whole. The tradition does it already. We know that we will need to buy a wedding ring when we will get married, because it is the way it supposed to be. Some people wear the wedding ring only because they feel that they have to because it is a tradition. It doesn’t matter to them out of what kind of material it is exactly made of. As long as it is on their finger, it symbolize that they are married, and this is all they need. It usually happens with men but not always.

Some men just want to make their wife-to-be happy and they go with whatever wedding ring she wants because for them all the rings symbolize the same thing- the marriage. I’m not saying that they don’t care, they do, but everyone has different opinions and different point of views about wearing wedding rings. When it comes to advertising, it is more about the company or the store who sells wedding rings. They know that people will buy them anyway when they plan to get married; the advertisement is to convince the consumer to buy at their store because they want to make money out of it.

They advertise their wedding rings in magazines, billboards, commercials, movies, songs, etc. Advertisement for wedding rings can be found in magazines such as bridal magazines but not only because almost every woman’s magazines have such advertisements. When driving around the town we can see billboards that advertise wedding rings as well. Usually they are showing a happy woman looking at her ring, a happy couple, or something funny. For example the “I DO jewelry” website has a billboard advertisement that shows picture of two wedding rings and says: “What she says: Any ring is fine, so long as I have you. ” What she thinks: “No diamond? How cheap! I’ll make his life a living hell! I’ll put poison in his coffee! I’ll cut his brake lines! ’ Get Her A Diamond, idiot! ” There are many advertisements that suggest men should buy his wife-to-be “an expensive diamond ring” or otherwise she wouldn’t love him. And there is that question that comes to our mind: Does really the price of the ring express his love to her? Well, does the engagement ring the woman receives from her fiance decide if her answer would be “YES” to “Would You Marry Me” question?

Well, she loves him so she is marrying him, not his ring. Then why would she demand a diamond ring to express his love to her? What is he can’t afford an expensive ring but he loves her? The corporations are just messing in people’s head. They say that “the more expensive the ring, the more he loves her”, but this is not the case. Women are not marrying because they love the ring they got, but because they love the man. What money does to people? Wedding ring is an expensive object, and the producers want to make as much money out of it as they can, regarding what they do to people’s thinking and emotions.

There is a myth that a person should spend two months’ salary on wedding rings. In reality not everyone can afford to do this, especially with the economy these days. The purchase of wedding is an emotional event and it is a purchase that will last a lifetime. The producers and distributors put a huge pressure on buying the wedding ring. It has to be “big and expensive” or otherwise she wouldn’t love him. Little girls hear that in commercials, or see it in advertisements and they grow up with this image of receiving a “big and expensive” ring from their fiances in the future.

If she doesn’t get that ring, she will fell he doesn’t love her. It is just messing with people’s thinking and emotions. In order to sell as much wedding rings, the producers and distributors have to put the object in people’s lifestyle and show how it expresses them, which is not always the truth. The website www. preciousplatinum. com uses this short phrase to advertise its wedding rings: “Life’s too short and love’s too long to settle for anything less. ” Saying so, they gave us an expression that wedding ring should be expensive because it will last a long time.

Superb ® Cert advertises by saying “Capture Her Heart With Perfection”. The Liberfarb collection of wedding rings advertises its new collection of platinum wedding rings with a phrase “For a love that last a lifetime”. This phrase can be interpreted by the consumers in different ways. First; they will buy a wedding ring from them because the ring may guarantee their love to last a life time. Also, the consumer will buy that ring from them because he believes that their love will last a life time because of the ring. The producers and distributors have to know how to sell their product. They attack the emotional side of human.

Their advertisements have to be emotional in order to bring consumers because there is a lot different corporations who sell wedding rings as well. They just have to know how to get more consumers, and the best way to do so it to show them how the object fits in their lifestyle and that it represents them. There are also many songs and commercials that tell us the importance of having wedding ring. For example the commercial for Kay ® Jewelers store play a short song at the end: “Every kiss begins with Kay”. It is a commercial for all their jewelry but they show wedding rings in particular as well.

The commercial always show a romantic couple wearing their jewelry (wedding rings) and they gave us a message that their jewelries are the best, and they make the couples’ life better; more romantic. Movies and celebrities play a big part in advertising wedding rings as well. The 1961 movie, Breakfast at Tiffany’s was the first movie that showed wedding ring. (Gad, 2004). It also made Tiffany & Co. more famous “and forever linked rings and diamonds with romance and love”. (Gad, 2004). In the twentieth century Hollywood played a key role in romantically linking jewelry and love.

The audiences were thrilled when the men pledged his love to a woman with diamond ring. “Jewelers collaborated with movie producers to show jewelry at it brightest. A diamond ring, whether large or small, was a big star as the ultimate symbol of eternal love, promised and given”. (Gad, 2004). Consumer feedback to mass producers When looking at wedding rings as an object, I argue that people are the critics for the wedding rings. The way they review the wedding rings change over time. Every few years different styles of wedding rings are popular.

The consumers play a major part in change of the style. There are websites such as mondera. com or newyorkweddingring. com where people can go on and create their own wedding ring. Basically they are telling the producers exactly what they want. It works both ways, because the consumer is getting exactly what he or she wants and leaves happy, and the producer makes the ring as consumer wishes, gets the money and is happy too. For some people the wedding ring is a “must-have” item. Some people wear the wedding ring because everyone does, sometimes without knowing the real meaning of it.

In the Jean Twenge’s book “Generation Me”, the author is talking about today’s people who do anything to fit in. Same is with wearing wedding rings for some people; they wear them because most of the married people do, and they want to fit in because they don’t want to be different. As I said they wear the ring, sometimes without knowing what really wearing the wedding ring means. Section three: one audience; numerous opinions The history of wedding ring is very long, and it is not something new. Money play a huge role when it comes to buying a wedding ring.

In this case, the audience (married people) gives a meaning to this object. People wear wedding ring because of the sentimental value and the tradition that was there since Ancient Egypt (2800 B. C. ). The attention for my cultural object would be the weddings; getting married. It is the time when people pay attention to wedding rings the most. At this time they visit the jewelry stores, online websites, read books/catalogs, and read blogs where people talk about wedding rings – all that just to pick that perfect wedding ring. They became the “experts” of wedding rings and they are hyperaware of this object at that time.

The future of the wedding rings is difficult to predict. We never know what future generation will think about them. But they lasted so many years and hopefully they will be there forever. The multibillion-dollar jewelry industries would probably come up with new precious metals and new meaning for wedding rings in marriage and that would keep their existence forever. Over the years there have been changes in the “social significance of wedding rings in human societies”. (Awofeso, 2002). The largely indirect impact of the feminist movement shaped the perception of wearing the wedding rings in our era as well. Awofeso, 2002). According to Niyi Awofeso, a physician, public health researcher, and a professional manager, before the 20th century “wedding rings were one of the symbols by which men institutionalized their domination of women”. The successful advocacy efforts of the Feminist movement in the 20th century changed it. He is also saying that wearing the wedding rings by males and females today “is one of the less well documented gains of the Feminist movement, a by-product of significant progress made to minimize spousal inequality”, but this is only his own view.

However, the changes in social significance led to gender equality in the wearing of wedding rings. Now wedding rings are views as a romantic love symbol, rather that symbol of domination. Different periods in human history and different societies in our era shaped different meanings of wedding rings. Feminists have their own, different view of wedding rings. Feminism is a movement striving for equal political and social rights for women. (Awofeso, 2002). Wedding rings were a big issue for them because before the 20th century it symbolized men domination over his wife.

Feminists wanted to minimize the “spousal inequality” and chance the meaning of wedding rings to romantic symbol. In doing so, both men and women wear wedding rings and the symbol of domination, which men gained over women in the earliest eras, disappeared. Awofeso is also saying that “Thanks to feminism, the wedding ring appears to be undergoing a silent revolution in our era. ” Again, some agree with him, some doesn’t. Another group audience where wedding rings are present is religion; churches.

Different religions have different believed and rituals when it comes to the wedding rings. The Catholic Church for example, played “a significant, though not entirely altruistic, role in promoting the use of wedding rings as a sign of fidelity”. (Awofeso, 2002). When couple gets married in Catholic Church, most of the time they exchange the wedding rings. Today wedding rings are present in almost every wedding but they are not mandatory by a Church. Although, most couples chooses to have them. Christians, on other hand, have slightly different beliefs.

According to Samuele Bacchiocchi, in the Seventh-day Adventist church, the question if wearing a wedding rings is inappropriate, engaged endless conversations. “Those who favor wearing the wedding ring feel strongly that for them the ring is a valuable symbol to affirm their marital status and commitment, as well as a protection from uninformed suitors”. (Bacchiocchi). “Those who oppose wearing the wedding ring feel strongly that a golden ring is an ornament forbidden by the apostolic admonitions against wearing “gold or pearls or costly attire””. (Bacchiocchi).

Bacchioncchi also claims that the wedding ring wasn’t mentioned in Bible and this is what makes people confused about if wearing it is right or not. Only signet rings were mentioned in Bible and they symbolized authority and dignity. Bacchiocchi is also saying that the wedding ring has been a sensitive issue in the history of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. In the late nineteenth century, the Adventist leaders stand against wearing jewelry, including rings but Adventists felt the pressure to follow the trend. The immigrants coming to America in the latter half of the nineteenth century brought with them new ustoms, including that of wearing jewelry, especially the wedding rings. (Bacchiocchi). The new and growing Adventist Church felt the same pressure. “Which hand does a wedding ring go on? What do you recommend? ” –it’s a common question asked on wedding blogs but not only blogs. Some of new-weds are really confused when it comes to wearing wedding rings. Some people wear their ring on left hand finger and others on right one. It’s all about their culture and their beliefs. On many blog websites people ask that question, and no one really knows what the correct answer is.

On the yahoo answers website for example, people ask that question admitting that they are confused about this. Many sources explain that wearing wedding ring on left hand finger is an old belief that the vein from left hand runs directly to the heart. But there are people today who wear their ring on the right hand as well. There are many reasons why people wear their wedding rings on right hand. Widows sometimes transfer their rings to signify their status, or when they aren’t ready to stop wearing it. (Titus). In some part of Europe people wear their wedding rings on right hand.

I found some posts on yahoo answers about left-handed people wearing their ring on right hand finger; their non-dominant hand because they don’t want to tear or damage the ring. Others said that they wear the wedding ring on right hand finger because that way they have more sentimental value. I also found someone who said that he/she wears the wedding ring on right hand because it is supposed to mean that she/she is open to cheating on this/her spouse. We have to be really careful of judging people based on the way they wear their wedding rings.

The gay and lesbian community is another group with their own beliefs about wearing wedding rings. According to the gayweddings. com website, “some gay couples choose to use their right finger in the right hand for the wedding ring since it is similar, but not the same as the heterosexual symbol. ” There are also couples that embrace the tradition of wearing the ring on the right finger of the left hand. There is a myth that gay and lesbian couples wear wedding rings on their right hands to show their sexual orientation. In most situations this is not true.

On the yahoo answers websites to this question people reply differently. Some are frustrated with this stereotype about gay and lesbians wearing their wedding rings on right hand. They claim that they want to be view the same as everyone else and they do wear their wedding rings as everyone else does; on the left hand finger. But it also depends what the wedding ring means to them. Most of those couples wrote on answers. yahoo. com that they wear their wedding ring on left hand finger and they argue that there is no “specific rule” for gay and lesbians. Some Cybelle blogger from answers. yahoo. om wrote that some gay/lesbian people wear their rings on their right ring finger because they could not legally get married, so they could not put the ring on their left ring finger. But at the end, it’s up to them on what hand finger they want to wear the wedding ring and there are no special rules about it. Money play a huge role in wedding rings. It is very hard for couples to buy a wedding ring. It might seem really easy to purchase such an object, but in reality it is not a piece of cake. There are millions different kinds of wedding rings. They can be bought almost in all department stores and online stores.

The prices vary from $100 or less to … you name it. It has a sentimental value and it is a symbol of love which will last a life time. For some people it means that the wedding rings must be expensive because of that sentimental value. That puts a big pressure on someone who is buying a wedding ring. It feels like people sometimes try to put a price on their love when buying a wedding ring. It is what the seller is telling us with his advertisements or selling techniques. Confused couples seek help for buying wedding rings online and in books. There are many websites such as eHow. om or mondera. com for example, that tells people how to buy a wedding ring. Ezinearticles. com website even lists “top rules for buying wedding rings”. There are also many books that guide new-weds couples when it comes to buy a wedding ring. Wedding ring is a very expensive object and the decision of buying one has to be thought through very carefully. The wedding ring can say a lot about our budget and financial status but we can’t put a price tag on our love. In conclusion, I argue that both the audience and cultural industry gives meaning to my cultural object.

The audience gives a meaning to wedding rings because it is a tradition carried on for many centuries. Without people; consumers, the wedding rings wouldn’t exist. People are the ones who are wearing them. It is a sentimental symbol of love for married people. It’s a tradition. The wedding ring symbolizes the marriage between two people and without those married people the industry wouldn’t have a purpose for making and selling wedding rings. Industry on the other hand gives a meaning to my cultural object as well. The different materials they make the wedding rings out of have different meaning for consumers.

The prices industries charge for wedding ring means something too. For some people the more expensive the ring, the more he loves his wife-to-be or this way he can shows his financial status to the “whole world”. But one is for sure; wedding ring makes an important and expensive item of wedding budget. Works Cited: Awofeso , Niyi . “Wedding Rings And The Feminist Movement”. Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales (Australia). 2002 . Bacchiocchi, Samuele . “A LOOK AT THE WEDDING RING”. CHRISTIAN DRESS AND ADORNMENT. Bernstein, Harry “The Wedding Ring – History and Tradition. ” The Wedding Ring – History and Tradition. 16 Feb. 2007 EzineArticles. com. 29 Mar. 2010 . eHow. com Ezinearticles. com Fasel, Marison and Proddow, With This Ring, The Ultimate Guide to Wedding Jewerly. Penny. New York, NY: Bulfinch Press, 2004. Gad, Osnat. Wedding Rings. New York, NY: Steward, Tabori & Chang, 2004. Griswold, Wendy. Cultures and Societies in a Changing World. Los Angeles: Imprint of Sage Publications, 2008. mondera. com People, “Do gay/lesbian couples wear their wedding rings on the right hand? “. Yahoo. nswers,com. 2009 . People, Yahoo. answers,com. 2009 . Rao, Nita. “I’m with the Band”. The Village Voice News. May 27, 2003 . Unknown, “Bilboard”. i DO JEWELLERY. < http://2. bp. blogspot. com/_yhSf4FXsUtU/SO-KVMJkQHI/AAAAAAAAAKg/bjq5EOw5TQ8/s400/diam_-billboard. jpg> Unknown, “Culture”. Texas A&M University. March 29, 2010 . Unknown, “Which Finger For My Gay Wedding Ring? “. GayWeddings. com. 2000-2010 . Wexler, Debi. “History of Wedding Rings & Diamond Engagement Ring”. Whiteflash. com. . Wedding Ring Meaning: love, marriage, bond between two people, sometimes it means the wealth

The creators Consumers tell producers what they want Cultural Creator ? Mass Producers ? Advertising ? Consumers -People in love -Vendors -movies -married people -Egypt, 2800 BC -jewelry companies -commercials -general people -brought to USA by -websites (internet) Puritans in 17th century -magazines -tradition?

Distributers -songs -jewelry stores -online stores -department stores

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