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In order to withstand Hess temperatures NASA developed a 5 meter long heat shield as the thermal protection system for this spaceship, which is known to be the Avocet belabor system [4]. The Avocet material in this ablative material system gradually wears off but however its main function was to reduce the surface temperature Of the heat shield The second requirement Of the TAPS Of the Orion Cave would be the single use system for situations of nominal water landing [4]. This Orion has to be structurally designed to deal with conditions of structural deflections, vibrato-acoustic loads, pressure loads, and thermal tress.

Furthermore protection for crew module had to be designed since they needed to take precaution for the extreme conditions and hence Orin’s backaches was constructed with composite material system and is covered with TAB-8 tiles [2]. The alumina in this material enhances the thermal stability and conductivity Hence these tiles seem to be very impact resistant and have a very low thermal expansion rate. These tiles are painted in TUFF coating which is known to be Toughened Nun-Piece Fibrous Insulation. This coat gives the backaches much higher strength with a low impact on weight [6].

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This insulation consists of oxidation resistant composite which make the Orion survive the mechanical stresses and the extreme heating and during re-entry of the spaceship. The other advantages of this TOFU composite is that it light-weight, replaceable, reusable, easy to design and low cost to design and maintain The avocet heat shield is also made in a titanium structure and the backaches consists of a titanium honeycomb as a core element [6]. Titanium Alloy (Tit-AL-V) has offers a high strength with very low weight and moreover it also incredibly resistant to corrosion.

It has a young dulls of 1 20 Gap which determines how strong this alloy can be [7]. The TAB tiles cannot withstand airframe load deformation and require SIP’s to isolate stress between the tiles and the orbiter structure which therefore prevents the tiles from stress failure. These Stress Insulated Pads are made of Income felt material which provides insulation in bottom of the gap between tiles. They are known to be waterproof and temperature resistant [8]. The backaches provides the crew members safety from major impacts in space and the heat shield protects them from extreme temperatures during spaceflight.

The launch abort system positioned right on top of the crew module, so that in case of an emergency during launch or climb to orbit the crew members can rescue themselves. The other safety factors needed to be considered are failure of equipment, catastrophic, heating and burning issues along with faulty calculations which can be rechecked and verified This is done under the process known as risk management which includes rigorous testing of materials for failure mode assessment, re-entry simulations of the spaceship and seeing the reliability of certain calculations. 4] While designing such high tech the environment needs to be considered. The launch of such spaceships could emit out high radiations which could effecting the skin of people living near to launch area as well as this launch could affect the micro gravity of the earth. The heat and fumes emitted due to the launch and construction of these spaceships could increase global warming which is another strong environmental factor which needs to be considered. “The first round of testing began in March 2009 and took place in a controlled water environment.

Testing near Kennedy Space Center in April 2009 was done in the rougher, uncontrolled waters of the Atlantic Ocean” [2] and this was done o minimize the effects as mentioned in the above factors. Last but not the least he economical factor that’s needs to be considered is the spending and cost on such spaceships should not exceed an expected limit which is given by the government and hence before conducting tests and purchasing materials the government needs to keep the mind the government financial stability.

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