Interventions and outcomes are examined to account for existing models for children who witness domestic violence. It is estimated three point three million children witness domestic violence in the United States annually. The term domestic violence refers to violence between intimate adult partners and may involve a range of behaviors including physical aggression, verbal threats and coercive/ degrading sex- “Approximately seventy-six percent women and twenty-four percent men are physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States”.
In 2012, “intimate partner violence made up twenty-one percent of all nonfatal violent crime experienced by women”. Likewise, “intimate partners committed four percent of the nonfatal violence against men in 2012”. Exposure to domestic violence results in negative effects to children’s health and development such as emotional distress, developmental delays, symptoms of post-traumatic stress and exterminating, (attention problems, aggressive behavior, and rule breaking actions), or internalizing, (anxiety/depression, withdrawal, somatic complaints) behaviors.
While it is now that children are incredibly resilient, exposure to domestic violence is thought to be particularly damaging to children’s development in part, because it frequently involves both a perpetrator and victim(s) who are known to, and often loved by the child. Children who are exposed to child maltreatment and domestic violence experience a variety of negative outcomes. Some studies from New York Coalition Against Domestic Violence (ANYWAYS) shows that boys are more likely to demonstrate a variety of internalizing and exterminating behaviors, whereas other studies found that girls are more likely.
Concerning trauma symptoms, they found that girls had over twice the odds of clinically significant levels of anxiety. Concerning behavioral problems, girls were more likely to display exterminating problems than boys. In fact, girls had over four times the odds of having a clinically significant level of socialized aggression compared to boys. Girls also had over twice the odds of attaining clinically significant levels of Psychotic Behavior when compared to boys. Behavioral problems have been reported in younger versus older children who have experienced violence.
However, they explain that adolescents have been comparatively less studied than children of other age groups. Increased child age was associated with decreased odds of reaching clinically significant scores for anxiety, depression, postgraduates stress, and sexual concerns. Age was not significantly associated with other trauma symptoms. However, concerning Several promising empirically supported treatments that directly target Post Traumatic Stress symptoms are available for traumatized child victims of physical abuse or witnesses to domestic abuse. These findings are not limited to the success in treating post-traumatic stress disorder but also in reducing other problems with children and adolescents such as; behavioral issues, exterminating symptoms, depression, shame, and violence. Treatments were also effective in increasing self esteem, feelings Of Competency, happiness, and social relationship functioning.
Services such as play therapy for children, and psycho-education and support groups for parents/ caregivers were used as well as family support groups at which child and parent/ caregiver were together. Therapist ratings indicated improvement in caregiver functioning and small but significant improvements in child outcomes. The child’s ability to identify linings and overall symptoms were rated most improved, while symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress were least improved. The number of sessions the caregiver and child attended was significantly correlated with the service provider’s perceptions of both the caregiver and the child.
A regression analysis was carried out which indicated that when services for caregivers focused on appropriate discipline, children improved the most. Some families are referred for services after the police are involved in a domestic violent call. The condition of the violent act(s) will be associated with behavioral outcomes in children, is another hypothesis. Lastly, there will be a growing trend from 2003 to 2012 of the suggested treatment interventions for children exposed to domestic violence.
Individual outcomes and suggested treatment interventions for children exposed to domestic violence in terms of: the importance of children’s perceptions of violence and their co- victimizing in the experience and psychological result of domestic violence; how and why children experience psychological threat or control in domestic violence incidents; and evaluate if there is a trend from 2003 to 2012. Cross tabulation and one-way NOVA will be employed in the data analysis. The independent variable in the analysis is the conditions (perception and psychological result).