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GIS PROJECT MANAGEMENT MSc Thesis Dissertation submitted in part fulfillment for the degree of Master of Science in Geographical Information Systems April 1997 J. G. A. Bestebreurtje Manchester Metropolitan University Mentor: Prof. Dr. H. J. Scholten Free University of Amsterdam Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version ABSTRACT Recent studies concerning GIS show that it is the fastest growing segment (both hard & software) of the graphical computer market. 70% of private organizations expect to use GIS as a strategic tool within their company.

Like a product, GIS in an organization has a life cycle. According to the model of Nolan this life cycle starts with awareness and ends when full integration with other information systems is achieved. Until recently project management for GIS projects was mainly about projects which were considered to be experimental. The requirements for such projects differ from the requirements for projects which are strategic for a company. Strategic GIS projects require a project manager with thorough understanding of issues such as: planning, knowledge of the objectives of the project, project environment and politics.

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There is little experience with such GIS projects. However the question “ How to manage a GIS project effectively” has to be answered for strategically positioned GIS projects to be succesfull. It is important for project managers to understand the relationship between the position of GIS in an organisation (Nolan Model) in relationship to the importance of GIS for the organisation (Mc Farlan). The way a GIS project should be handled depends, to a large extend, on these two positionings. A combination of IT methodologies such as Structured Analysis nd Design, project management methodologies such as PRINCE and Hewlett-Packards Customer Project Life Cycle 2 combined with best practices are proposed in order to provide a framework, for project managers, to handle GIS projects which are considered strategic for the organisation. This framework, based on prior experience and through evaluation of a complex GIS project has been shown, in some respects, to work. There is still some uncertainty since there is little experience in the market with strategic GIS projects so there are not a lot of “best practices” to learn from and to further evaluate the proposed approach available. 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 2 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER INTRODUCTION 1 PROJECT LIFE CYCLE 1. 1. Introduction 1. 1. 1 Product life cycle 1. 1. 2 Life Cycle of an IT system/IT project 1. 1. 3 Strategic position of a Geographic Information System in the Organization 1. 1. 4 Information Needs 1. 2. Summary 2 METHODOLOGIES 2. 1. Introduction 2. 2. General 2. 3. Information System Development Methodologies 2. 4. The Roaring Nineties 2. 5. Choosing the appropriate development methodology for a GIS project 2. . 1 Rapid Application Development/Joint Application Development 2. 6. Summary 3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR GIS 3. 1. Introduction 3. 2. General 3. 3. The project stages 3. 4. Project Initiation 3. 4. 1 Responsibilities of the Project manager 3. 5. The Project Initiation Document (PID) 3. 5. 1 PID:The background of the project 3. 5. 2 PID:Mission, Objective and Strategy 3. 5. 3 PID: Scope 3. 5. 4 PID: Constraints 3. 5. 5 PID: Organization of the project 3. 5. 6 PID: The Project Plan’s 3. 5. 7 PID: Deliverables, Milestones and Acceptance Criteria 3. 5. Present PID and Kick-off meeting 3. 6. Detailed Plans/Work Structure Breakdown 3. 7. Monitoring 3. 7. 1 General 3. 7. 2 Progress Meeting 3. 8. Risk Management 3. 8. 1 General 3. 8. 2 The four phase approach Page 2 Page 3 Page 5 Page 6 Page 11 Page 11 Page 11 Page 13 Page 15 Page 20 Page 22 Page 24 Page 24 Page 25 Page 27 Page 31 Page 39 Page 41 Page 44 Page 46 Page 46 Page 47 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 55 Page 56 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 58 Page 60 Page 62 Page 66 Page 66 Page 75 Page 75 Page 75 Page 76 Page 76 Page 78 © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 3. 8. 3 Assessment 3. 9. Change requests, expectations and deviations 3. 9. 1 General 3. 9. 2 Change Control 3. 10. Exceptions 3. 11. Threats in a project 3. 12. Project Closure 3. 12. 1 General 3. 12. 2 Acceptance testing 3. 12. 3 Project Closure Meeting 3. 13. Quality Review 3. 14. Training 3. 15. Support 3. 16. Summary 4 THE SPATIAL COMPONENT; ARE GIS PROJECTS DIFFERENT? 4. 1. Introduction 4. 2. The G in GIS 4. 3. The IS in GIS 4. 4. What is so special about GIS? 4. 5. The acquiring of Geo Information 4. 6.

Are GIS project different? 4. 7. Conclusion 5 MANAGING A REAL PROJECT – THE MILGIS PROJECT 5. 1. Introduction 5. 2. Approach 5. 3. Content of the MILGIS PID 5. 3. 1 MILGIS PID – Background 5. 3. 2 MILGIS PID – Mission, Objectives, Strategy 5. 3. 3 MILGIS PID – Scope of Work 5. 3. 4 MILGIS PID -Constraints 5. 3. 5 MILGIS PID -Methods 5. 3. 6 MILGIS PID Project Organization 5. 3. 7 MILGIS PID Project Plan 5. 4. MILGIS Risks 5. 5. MILGIS Quality 5. 6. Does the proposed methodology work? 6 CONCLUSIONS 6. 1. Introduction 6. 2. The importance of Life Cycle and Methodologies 6. 3.

Project management for GIS 6. 4. Area for further research ADDENDUM -Risk Management Checklist REFERENCES Page 81 Page 83 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 89 Page 89 Page 89 Page 90 Page 90 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 96 Page 96 Page 97 Page 99 Page 104 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108 Page 108 Page 109 Page 109 Page 110 Page 111 Page 113 Page 115 Page 116 Page 117 Page 121 Page 128 Page 129 Page 131 Page 134 Page 134 Page 134 Page 135 Page 135 Page 137 Page 138 Page 142 © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 4 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version DISCLAIMER

The results presented in this thesis are based on my own research in the Department of Regional Economics of the Free University of Amsterdam. All assistance received from other individuals and organizations has been acknowledged and full reference is made to all published and unpublished sources used. This thesis has not been submitted previously for a degree at any Institution. Lieren, April 1997 J. G. A. Bestebreurtje © This document contains information that is copyright protected by Hewlett-Packard and other owners. All rights reserved. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 5 Master Thesis: GIS Project management

Final Version INTRODUCTION In the last decade computer systems which can handle large amounts of “Geographic Information” have become sufficiently powerful and inexpensive to be used on a wide scale. Currently even personal computers are well suited to be used in GIS environments. The field of Geographical or Spatial data is very wide and GIS systems can be used for many different purposes. Some of the more important fields of application are: { Land & Property Systems; { Environmental Management; { Socioeconomic Analyzis; { Telecommunications; { Health. More and more data are becoming available in a digital format.

Investments in the field of data communication are huge and enable the transfer of large amounts of data all over the world. Internet’s and Intra net’s are increasing the availability of information for large parts of society. And these developments change the way organizations think and act. Well designed GIS systems will enable quick and easy access to these large volumes of data and enable organization to use them to gather information either for their own benefit or for the public benefit in order to: { Provide services; { Increase competitiveness { Provide information.

According to Littlejohn (1996), the GIS market is growing at 18-30% per year. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 6 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Many organizations nowadays recognize that geographic information can serve as an important resource. A successfully implemented GIS can also enable the “non” GIS population to be more effective without increasing the complexity of their work. GIS however is a complex information technology which requires a lot of planning in order to have a successful implementation.

There is a lack of experience in large GIS project design and implementation and many questions have to be considered when performing a GIS project some of these are: { What are the mission, vision and objectives of the project? { What has to be achieved by means of this project; { How do I build such a GIS system? { What are the experiences (best practices) in this field? This thesis is about the project management aspects of GIS and the way to handle this complexity from a project managers point of view.

This is accomplished by providing some theoretical background, a practical approach towards a GIS project and a case study of a complex GIS environment. Objectives of the thesis The objectives of the thesis are: ¦ To examine the life cycle of GIS projects; ¦ To explain the importance of the model of McFarlan and the position of GIS in this model; ¦ To look at some methodologies which are useful in GIS projects in relation to the GIS life cycle; © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 7 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version To clarify if there is a difference between project management in general and project management in GIS projects; ¦ To describe the practical implications for approaching and handling a GIS project; ¦ To examine an actual case and compare this with the approach put forward in this thesis. Problem Statement The problem which this thesis addresses is: How to manage a GIS project effectively? At several places in the thesis the following question will be addressed: “Is there a difference between a “state of the art” IS project and a GIS project” in order to clarify if GIS project management differs from IT-project management in general.

Scope of this thesis This thesis deals primarily with the “how” question of GIS project management. What are the generic processes and tools which are available? Which methodologies are useful? What are the consequences of the GIS project life cycle and what are the roles and responsibilities of a GIS project manager. The “what” questions, dealing with specific processes, tools, architectures, the advantages or disadvantages of certain software packages are not part of this thesis. Also this thesis will not provide a methodology for all GIS projects.

It will present only one way to handle a GIS project and share best practices. As DeMarco and Lister (1987) : “Methodologies provide unification and prevent common mistakes but training, tools and the exchange of “best practices” are just as important”. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 8 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Document Overview This document overview clarifies the structure of this Master Thesis and the outlines of the chapters that are included. The Abstract contains the main elements, my findings and arguments.

The Introduction provides information on the changes that are currently happening in the GIS environment and that have influence on the way GIS project management is handled. Furthermore the objectives, scope and the problem statement are part of the Introduction. Chapter 1-4 are the core of this document. They each cover an important element necessary for GIS project management. Two main aspects are covered in every chapter: ¦ Principles: The theory provided on the element; ¦ Findings:The reality related to this element. These findings are partly from literature and partly a distillation of my own experience.

At the beginning of each chapter is a small introduction which clarifies the relationship of the particular chapter in the light of the overall problem, the sequence of the arguments and the specific contributions I have made. Chapter 5 is a case study of an actual project called MILGIS. It consist of a secondary analysis of documents and project plans on the MILGIS project and interviews conducted with several people involved. The findings are compared with the proposed GIS project management approach developed in chapter 3. Reasons why the MILGIS project deviated from the proposed project approach are noticed and discussed.

In chapter 6 conclusions are drawn and the developments made from the findings in this thesis are described. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 9 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version The structure of the Thesis is also be represented graphically (figure 1): Figure 1: Structure of Thesis Project Life Cycle 1 M ethodology 2 p o s i t i o n i n p o s i t i o n i n g Theory Life Cycle Position M ethodology fit Risk A ssesement P r o j e c t M anagement 3 A r e G I S Projects Different? 4 M I L G I S Case Study 5 Conclusions 6 g Practice Reflection Validation

In the Thesis the assumption is made that the GIS project to be managed is either strategic or mission critical. As the graphic representation shows the theoretical chapters are necessary to understand the position in the life-cycle of the project and also to determine which methodology is the most appropriate. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 10 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 1 1. 1. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE Introduction GIS projects fail because they are not conducted in the right manner. Running out of planned budget, not being ready on time, not providing the expected functionality are the symptoms of failure.

KPMG has a lot of experience with complex IT projects and in one of there recent publications they make the following statement on this subject: “In the past few years the nature of IT project changed from establishing efficiency improvement to support and renewal of processes, products and culture” (Roelofs et al, 1996). The management of a GIS project has to be aware of changing project requirements and take account of two principle factors: { The importance of understanding the GIS life cycle( this chapter); { The methodology which is appropriate (the next chapter). 1. 1. Product life cycle “There is a time for every season under heaven, a time to be born ………. a time to die” The life cycle of an information project is always the same. Initial awareness is the start of every life cycle, maturity the end. The difficult part is to find out which position GIS has at a particular point in time in a particular organization. Though there is much literature on the life cycle principle there is only very limited information on the influence of the life cycle position of GIS in an organization and the way a GIS project consequently should be handled.

Based on the limited experience of the author in the GIS field and his broader experience with project management within HewlettPackard the relationship between the life cycle position and the way to handle the GIS project is discussed in this chapter. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 11 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version One model of a life cycle of a product is that of Nolan (Davis and Olsen, 1987) (Figure 2) Figure 2: Nolan’s Model of the Life Cycle ADAPTION RATE SATURATION LEVEL TIME 1 2 3 1) Initial Awareness 2) Accelerated Introduction 3) Drive to Maturity 4) Complete Market Coverage The life of a product starts after being developed by initial awareness. Customers become aware of the existence of the product mostly because of marketing activities. After this awareness there is a period of accelerated growth and the products reaches it’s maturity phase. The maximum penetration in the market will be reached and finally there will be replacements or more modern products become available and a process of deterioration will start. For a company, it is of importance to be aware of the life cycle of their products.

Research and development should be in line with the life cycle enabling a company to introduce new or improved products before the maximum market coverage is reached. The total life cycle differs considerably between products. A Boeing 747 has a life cycle of several decades © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 12 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version whereas a personal (486) computer’s life cycle is less then one year. For this reason the time to develop a new plane is considerably longer than to the time to develop a new PC.

To put this into a different perspective; a delay of 6 months due to wrong engineering of a plane is probably acceptable. For a PC producer this will be the differences between success and failure as the competion has had enough time to overtake it’s position. 1. 1. 2 Life Cycle of an IT system/IT project. IT systems have a life cycle similar to products. For this reason the development of any IT systems is limited in time. It is, of course, important to know what this model looks like since this describes the period of time available to develop and build a system.

The model of Nolan has been developed by Davis and Ohlsen (1987) into a six phase model (Figure 3): Figure 3: Model of Nolan for Projects USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM x x x x 1 2 3 x 4 5 6 DEVELOPMENT PHASE x =Transition from phase T T+1 MODEL OF NOLAN WITH 6 PHASES (DAVIS & OLSEN 1987) © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 13 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 1 Start A small group of people are using thesystem, limited and decentralized control,minimum planning. 2 Diffusion More experimenting, more acceptance, number of users increases. Management Organizational steps are taken to ensure possibilities for intensified use and cost control. 4 Integration The information system is integrated in the organization. 5 Data Orientation Integration with other information systems in the organization. 6 Maturity System is fully integrated and successfully fulfills expected tasks. This 6 phase model is applicable to GIS as well. It is a good way to determine the position of GIS in an organization. Depending on the position in the model the demands during a GIS project will differ.

This issue will be examined more fully when looking at the strategic position of a GIS project later in this chapter. It is important to understand that it is impossible to skip a phase in project planning since neither the organization nor the people in the organization are able to do this. The experiences of every previous phase are needed to step into the next phase. For example in the beginning of the 1980’s the first word processors were introduced. The word processor in it’s initial stage had only very few users and little organization and doing © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 4 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version away with these first word processors would not have caused a great disturbance. The word processor was in it start or initial phase. A company which decided that word processors was the way to go and which got rid of all typewriters would have problems such as: {No procedures in place (word processors are different from typewriters); {High training costs of secretaries; {Extremely high costs of equipment, not commonly available; {No internal acceptance. 1. 1. 3 Strategic position of a Geographic Information System in the Organization.

A recent Dutch study “ Gis, noodzaak of luxe? “ (Grothe et al. 1994) looking at the the position of GIS in 2500 private organizations in 1993 showed the following results: Organization { Utility companies; { Trade and retail companies; { Transport and communication; { Financial services; { Business services. { Utility companies; Use of GIS 67% 47% 58% 60% 44% 67% The position of GIS systems in these organizations is as follows: Use of GIS 16% Management 52% Startup 11% Diffusion 21% Integration The results show that about half of all GIS systems in the surveyedcompanies are in a startup phase. 1% are used more frequently by a larger group of users. In 16% of cases © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 15 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version the GIS has become so important that measures are being taken in the organizational and financial field to control investments. Finally 21% of all GIS systems are fully integrated into the organization. The last two phases Data-orientation and Maturity out of the Nolan model were no part of this survey nor was a distinction made between the types of organisations and the use of GIS in the different phases.

Grothe et al (1994) explains this in the following way: The 4 phase growth model was modified into a 6 phase model due to the fact that, through rapid technology changes the stadium of maturity will never be reached. It is even hard to reach the phase of integration. After a technological renewal a new lifecycle starts. The survey looks at GIS in a general sence and defines GIS as “an automated information system that can handle spatial data, including thematic mapping, automated mapping and facility management type systems”.

The way organisations use GIS in different phases was no part of the survey. In general the importance of the GIS to the organisation is less if the GIS is in a startup phase compared to the integration phase. Management will in pay more attention and give more support to systems which are in a management or integration stage because their relative importance for the company is much greater. An other way to look at GIS in an organization is according to the model of McFarlan and McKenney (1983) which describes the strategic position of applications.

Grothe et al. (1993) examined the position of the GIS according to this model (Figure 4). © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 16 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Figure 4: Strategic Position of GIS, Mc Farlan and McKenney Model development direction Strategic Position of GIS Strategic Influence New Applications Little Much 28% Operation Support Tool Strategic Influence Present Application 49% Intermediary 1% Vital Much 22% Strategic New GIS applications are first tested and are considered to be in the intermediary or experimental fase.

From this point on two things can happen; either the application is considered to be strategic and might even move on to become a vital application for the organization. The other possibility is that the application becomes an operation support tool without strategic or vital value. The same applies of course to GIS applications which are in use. If such an application is either strategic or vital the influence of the application is considerable. The amount of attention from higher levels of management for strategic or vital applications is larger than the amount of attention a operation support tool will get.

It’s important to realize that the position in the above model determines the importance of the GIS for the organization. Companies are willing put a lot of effort (resources & money) into applications (projects) which have a strategic or vital position. Consequently there are always strict time-constrains in such projects. A project realizing an intermediary or experimental application will not have the same kind of resources and constraints. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 17 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version

Intermediary applications can become strategic when they are successful or will never be used or will become an operation support tool, which is bound to disappear in case they do not have the potential to move into the strategic stage. A basic description of the stages is: Description GIS is usable for support on a operational level, there is no strategic influence of GIS. Strategic GIS is essential for strategic purposes at present. This influence will either diminish as GIS becomes a Support tool or will increase if it becomes Vital. Intermediary GIS is a Support tool at present but there is the expectation that it might become Strategic.

Vital GIS is essential for the organization at presence and in the near future. An other way to look at the model is as shown in Figure 5 follows: Figure 5: Strategic Position of GIS and the effect of funding Stage Support Strategic Position of GIS High High 22% Strategic F u n d s 1% Vital F u n d s 28% Operation Support Tool Benefits Generated Low 49% Intermediary Recourse Use normal development direction It’s important to look at the flow of the funds in this model. Most funds to develop new applications are granted either to replace systems which have become operation support tools.

There are also funds available to add to vital applications. It’s not common to invest a lot in operation support tools, this money is often used to invest in intermediary tools which either replace or add to the environment. There is also a tendency to invest a lot in strategic applications which might become vital applications in time. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 18 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Though it goes beyond the scope of this chapter it is important to notice that the demands on the IT system being developed vary in every quadrant.

Neglecting this fact will lead to project failure since every quadrant has it’s own demands. Vital systems are often also called mission critical and have very strict demands concerning support in case of problems. Sometimes there is even demand for a standby system which can become operational immediately after a system failure. This aspect has to be taken into account during the design. The same demand is very unlikely if the system is intermediary or experimental. A recent KPMG study (Roelofs et al, 1996) relates 4 types of IT projects to the Nolan curve: Type of Project Position in the Nolan Curve – IT as a tool Start/Diffusion 2 – IT as a management instrument Management 3 – IT as an improvement instrument Integration 4 – IT as a strategic weapon Data Orientation/Maturity A type 4 project is far more complex than a type 1 project and requires a different way of project management. A type 1 project could be the installation and configuration of a Mapping system non automated processes. A type 4 project would link to the strategic goals of the organization and require a high level of involvement of senior management. Type 4 projects are complex and have, due to their complexity a high failure risk.

Furthermore they are usually very costly. One result of the survey “GIS, noodzaak of luxe? ” (Grothe et al. ,1994) was that GIS will have a strategic function in an increasing number of companies. GIS will become embedded in the MIS (Management Information System) of companies.. In this thesis the author concentrates on these strategic (type 4) projects these are the kind of GIS projects which are demanded by the customers. As the study of Grothe et al (1994) shows 49% of GIS applications are in the intermediary quadrant the logical development direction is into the strategic quadrant. In the past years many intermediar GIS projects have 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 19 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version been accomplished the experience with the, far more complex demands, strategic GIS projects is far more limited. 1. 1. 4 Information Needs An other way to look at information systems by looking at information needs in relation to the position where they will be implemented in the organization. To do this “triangle diagrams” which represent the different levels in the organization are used (Figure 6). These diagrams do not represent organizational structures they focus on the information need which varies depending on the functions.

Figure 6: Information Needs in Organizations INFORMATION DECISION E EXECUTIVE E R&M O B) INFORMATION FLOWS DATA IMPLEMENTATION R&M O A) FUNCTIONS RESEARCH & MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL UNSTRUCTURED LOW VOLUME EXTERNAL E R&M O C) DATA CHARACTARISTICS STRUCTURED HIGH VOLUME INTERNAL E R&M O EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS TRANSACTION PROCESSING,FACILITIS MANAGEMENT D) INFORMATION SYSTEMS (Source: Reeve and Cornelius, 1993, p 38) Figure a. shows the different levels in an organization, Executive, Research & Management, Operational. Figure b. hows that on an operational level there is a need for data and implementation whereas at the executive level there is a need for decision and information. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 20 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version In figure c. the characteristics of the data involved are low volume, unstructured and external at the executive level and the opposite at the operational level. Finally figure d. looks at the kind of information systems needed at the different levels ranging from executive information systems for the top executives to transaction processing at the operational level.

The information triangle translated to a GIS environment is represented in Figure 7: Figure 7: Information Triangle for GIS E Spatial inputs to EIS R&M Spatial Modelling, Policy GIS Spatial Decision Support Systems O Geographical Information Systems Operational Information Processes in GIS SOURCE: Reeve and Cornelius, 1993 Depending on the position in the triangle the demands on the GIS will be different. However it is important to realize that many information systems cover large parts of the triangle and have to fulfill the needs of all levels involved.

In order to develop an appropriate information system a thorough investigation must be undertaken based on the mission of the organization, on analysis of the information needs at every level and on the translation of all of this into an information strategy and an information architecture. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 21 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 1. 2. Summary Understanding the theoretical principles of the life cycle of an (G)IS in an organization is of importance when enrolling in a GIS project.

The position of GIS on the 6 phases model of Nolan determines largely the available funds, demands on the project and the management attention for the project. A Dutch study (Grothe et al, 1994) shows that within private organizations 70% of the respondents use or expect to use GIS as an strategic tool. This implies that GIS projects linked to the business goals of the organization will receive a lot of attention. Every organization ought to have fundamental business objectives which lead to a vision and mission. These can be translated into a Business/Function strategy.

The IS and IT strategies have to be in line with the Business/Function strategy and, in today’s business climate, information technology must deliver tangible results that support the overall business strategy and goals. For a GIS project manager it is important to understand the business strategy in relation to the GIS project which is conducted and he must be able to answer the next important question: How does my project support the organizations vision and how does it help to achieve it’s business goals? Once the position of GIS in the organization is clear it is important to handle the project in a structured way.

A project manager has to “build” his project organization keeping this in mind. In order to have a successful project it must be: { On schedule; { Within budget; { Of good quality; { Complete; { Accepted by the customer. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 22 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Choosing an appropriate methodology to do these things is critical in accomplishing this difficult task.. In the next chapter methodologies for GIS projects are discussed. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 23 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 2 2. 1. METHODOLOGIES Introduction

Clients experience project failure due to: { Inadequate definition of requirements; { Changing requirements; { Unrealistic time scale; { Underestimating project costs; { Incorrect choice of supplier. (Source: Input, 1994) Although project managers are usually intelligent people different project managers make the same mistakes over and over again. IT projects are getting more complex due to business management and technological developments. A standard framework or methodology describing the way to perform the project management tasks diminishes at least the chance of “common” mistakes.

GIS is in the context of particular interest because: { It is a new technology and there is relatively little experience of implementing it; { It is not well understood; { It has some particular characteristics which affects the choice of methodology. In the literature on GIS there is only limited reference to the use of methodologies in GIS projects. As described in chapter 1, GIS is moving from the experimental phase in the life cycle to the strategic position. The demands on GIS projects and GIS project managers are changing accordingly and a structured project approach is becoming more important. 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 24 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version In this chapter (and the next chapters) the author focuses on GIS projects which are strategic of vital and are complex in the sense that several departments are involved. To determine which methodology to use for such GIS projects is not easy. It could even be a question of how to adapt the “best available” methodology. Based on literature studies and Rapid Application Development experiences within Hewlett Packard the author discusses the use of methodologies for GIS projects.

Based on the characteristics of GIS projects which are strategic a recommendation which methodology to use is made. Finally these recommendations are tested by reference to a specific extensive GIS project in which the author was involved. 2. 2. General A methodology is a standard framework describing the way a certain task, in this case project management, can be handled. A project management methodology can be used as a foundation for doing projects and it describes all the steps which have to be taken. in a project. Also the way things can be handled, methods are described. Methods are either descriptive or normative. Descriptive ¦ Normative = = describing reality explaining how reality should look Whether a descriptive or a normative method is appropriate depends on the situation, the kind of problem, the kind of users involved and the development environment. For this reason it makes a lot of sense to proceed on the basis of a work strategy which at least describes the objectives and provides an argument about the choice of methods since: “Strategies are general approaches for achieving an objective; methods are the detailed means for doing it”. (Davis and Olsen, 1987) © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 5 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Along with methods come techniques and tools. Techniques determine for which specific problems which solutions can be used and which tools are available. Schematically the sequence is shown in Figure 8: METHODOLOGY WORK STRATEGY METHODS/TECHNIQUES (AUTOMATED)TOOLS SOURCE: BEMELMANS,1994 Figure 8: Methodology Sequence Building a GIS is a complex task. It involves both technical issues such as databases, appropriate hard & software and non-technical issues such as involvement and acceptance. A project manager has to take all issues into account.

The idea that there is a methodology, a solution or for that matter a single GIS package on the market which fits all GIS projects is a grave mistake as is the idea that every project needs a customized package and experiences from previous projects would not be valuable. Huxhold and Levinghson (1995) consider that the best ways for a GIS project to fail once the vision has been established is: ¦ By comparing various commercial products and decide which one is the “best”; ¦ To assume that most commercial products are so similar that a comparison of capabilities is not necessary and select one based upon price, popularity or some other factor.

In order to avoid such failure there is a need for a structured analyses of the specific organizational, technical and environmental issues involved and a assessment of products and systems in the light of this. Methodologies are available to help with this difficult task. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 26 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 2. 3. Information System Development Methodologies There is a wide variety of methodologies available. Reeve and Cornelius (1993) discuss the ones described in figure 9: INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES

TRADITIONAL SYSTEMS ANALYSES 1) Project Analyses 2) Feasibility Study 3) System Investigation 4) Systems Analyses 5) Systems Design 6) Implementation 7) Review SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INFORMATION ENGINEERING 1) Business Strategy Planning 2) Information Strategy Planning 3) Business Area Planning 4) Business System Design 5) Technical Design 6) Construction 7) Production STRUCTURED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 1) Analysis of Current System 2) Specification Required System 3) User Selection Service Levels 4) Detailed Data Design 5) Detailed Procedure Design 6) Physical Design Control ) User Requirements 2) Software Requirements 3) General Architecture 4) Detailed Design 5) Testing & Transfer 6) Operational Maintenance PROTOTYPING ETHICS 1) Preliminary Analyses 2) Build Prototype 3) Evaluate Prototype either 4) Complete Prototype 1) Systems Analysis 2) Socio-Technical Systems Design 3) Social System Solutions 4) Compatibility & Ranking 5) Detailed Design 3) Technical System Solutions 4) Switch to Conventional Lifecycle Source: GIS in Organisations, Derek Reeve & Sarah Cornelius, 1993, p135 Figure 9: Methodologies These are only a few of the methods which are available.

Which one is the best to use is difficult to answer. It is a question of the kind of project,of the preferences of the organization in which the project is taking place and, of course, of personal preferences. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 27 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version It is however important to understand the relation between the designer and the method as shown in figure10. THE QUALITY OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM RELATION BETWEEN DESIGNER AND METHOD QUALITY OF THE METHOD LOW HIGH QUALITY OF THE DESIGNER LOW LOUSY I. S. BAD I. S. HIGH GOOD I. S. EXCELLENT I. S. SOURCE:BEMMELMANS, 1994

Figure 10: Quality of an Information System The conclusion from figure is simple; it’s more important to have a good designer than to have a good method. Methods don’t create information systems, designers do! A good designer takes care that the involved parties understand what is being designed thus making it possible for the involved parties to understand if this design is according to their wishes and fullfills the technological, economical and organisatorial requirements. The methodology supporting the designer, according to Bemmelmans (1994) should support the designer in doing this and the metlod should both be effective en efficient.

If possible both designer and method should be good. Nevertheless methodologies are important for projects and before choosing a method it is important to look at the way of thinking behind it since this will have a great impact on the outcome of the methodology. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 28 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Some major paradigm’s are: { Objectives versus inter subjective reality; do all people see reality in the same way or are the requirements of a user different from a designer or a systems manager; { Total versus partial; do we build a total solution or do we build modules; { Deduction versus nduction, do we take the present situation as reference or do we anticipate on a new organization; { Departmental versus functions, do we design per department or do we build on a functional level; { Top down / bottom up, do we design the system from the general idea into detail level or visa versa. The methodology we choose to use for a GIS project should also consider user involvement because the users are the true customers of the system. Communication and understanding the different interests is the key to success because of the dangers of misunderstanding the requirements of the principal, the end-user, the builders and others involved.

These interests will most likely not be in line with each other. For a successful project however all involved must understand each other’s issues and at least understand, and preferably agree to, the approach taken. Figure 11 shows some of the complexity of role interactions but is highly simplified. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 29 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Figure 11: Role Interactions R o le Interactions Requirements Customer Service, Distribution End Users Funding, Business Needs Support, Service Customers Productivity Services Usage Trends Design, Build, Integrate

Company’s IT Infrastructure Control, Maintain Status Tools, Processes Builder Administrator Policies Target Architecture, Guidelines, Requirements Strategic Planner Source: Hewlett-Packard Gererally ,the end-user is interested in a easy to use application which will enable him to do his job more easily. However if not properly informed he will be afraid of loosing his job because of the project and if this fear isn’t taken away he will not become a supporter. The customers are interested in the quality of the service which they will get because of the application. They do not care if the user finds it hard or difficult to use.

The builder is interested in guidelines, requirements and the target architecture and he will not be very pleased if suddenly the requirements change which might happen if the endusers finds out that it is not a usable system. To understand all these interactions is still rather easy. However when politics come into place, and they do in any project of substantial scale, totally different interactions are important and these are much more difficult to manage. Methodologies assist in managing the technical issues of projects; politics and role-interactions are managed through experience and understanding. 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 30 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 2. 4. The Roaring Nineties “When a student told professor Einstein, These are the same questions as on last years test, the professor responded: Oh yes, but the answers are different this year”. Many organizations are confronted with a rapidly changing business environments and are trying to find appropriate strategies to cope with this. Strategies such as: { Cost cutting; { Protectionism; { Financial restructuring. often do not provide solutions as they are not unique and can easily be duplicated by the competition.

The only way to survive in the long run is to constantly add value to ones product weather this is a car or a map or the provision of information. In practice this means faster time to market, increase quality, constant innovation and reacting to the customer demands quickly. As Tom Peters (1987) said: “No company is safe…. There is no such thing as a ’solid’ or even substantial, lead over one’s competitors. Too much is changing for anyone to be complacent. Moreover the ‘champ to chump’ cycles are growing ever shorter. Because of changes in Business Management and new technologies which become available the role of Information Technology has changed drastically in the last decade. Development of new information systems has become much more complex. Developments like Internet create opportunities (but also threats) which were not imaginable only a few years ago. Most methodologies and methods however were developed in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s and nearly all of those incorporate the “waterfall” approach (Figure 12). © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 31 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version

This approach is highly dependent on the ability to create very good and detailed requirement definitions and specification. Figure 12: Waterfall Model Waterfall – A phased approach Time Req. Definition fix error User User Acceptance Acceptance Design Build fix error fix error Implement fix error RB-IIP Maintenance To use succesfully a methodology based on the “waterfall” approach the following assumptions must be valid: { Pre specification is possible; { Change is expensive; { Good communications; { Static model is adequate; { User’s understanding is complete; { User’s know (ahead of time) what they want.

It is typical for these kinds of methodologies that the moment of user acceptance is late in the development cycle. It is not possible to change the solution at this stage without a lot of effort and expense. The easiest opportunity to change is in the requirements definition © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 32 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version phase. Try to imagine the impact of such a methodology in a GIS environment. This would mean that the GIS users should have a complete understanding of the entire system. GIS is evolving very rapidly and new functionality is added to GIS systems every few months.

Furthermore only in the last 10 years GIS has been available on affordable hardware platforms so there is not much knowledge about completed complex GIS projects. Also what was advanced a year ago is considered to be basic the next because of the tremendous development speed of GIS. “In most projects, the first system built is barely usable… There is no alternative but to start again, smarting but smarter.. The discard and redesign may be done in one lump, or it may be done piece by piece.. it will be done… The management question therefore, is not whether to build a pilot system and plan to throw it away.

You will do that. The only question is whether to plan in advance to build a throwaway, or to promise to deliver the throwaway to customers. ” (Brooks,1995) Nowadays it seems that change, death and taxes are the only certainty in life and we know that during nearly every project the original requirements change and the ability to adhere to this will decide the success or failure of the project. Traditional business planning as done by most companies takes the following steps: { Business plan; { Information plan; { Automation plan; { Project Plans. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 33

Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version The business plan normally does not take into account the possibilities or pitfalls in the information and automation plans, there is no feedback whatsoever. As a consequence more and more organization are trying to establish a business plan using “business to IT alignment”. This is a process that ensures that all company strategies (business strategy, ISstrategy) are in line with each other. (Figure 13) Figure 13: Evolution of Business and IT Planning Evolution of Business and IT Planning VISION Business/Function Strategy Business Plan

NEEDS ASSESEMENT Information Systems Strategy Information Plan VISION TARGET ARCHITECTURE Technology Strategy: IT Strategy: TRANSITION PLANNING P R O J E C T S Automation Plan E D U C A Fundamental Business T I O N DEVELOPMENT/Pilot Implementation/ DEPLOYMENT Implementation Proliferation Projects Objectives SUPPORT/MANAGEMENT of Applications, Systems, Networks, Users (Roadmap: process model) Traditional Modern Source: Hewlett-Packard,1995 In the past projects were defined after all the other plans were established. The present business demands are for a more flexible way of handling projects.

At the highest level there are the mission and vision of the organization which provide the fundamental business objectives. The business strategy which is in line with mission, vision © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 34 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version and objectives, interacts with the IS and IT strategy. This means that all strategies support and strengthen each other. In this way the information systems are directly linked to the organizations strategy and are the most effective. It’s obvious that GIS-projects have to fit to this model as well.

For this reason a GIS project manager should be aware of these business fundamentals. In the Arthur Young Practical Guide for Information Engineering (1987) seven objectives are listed when developing organization wide information systems: 1. Responsive and accurate support to the information needs of senior managers by developing information systems that are of strategic importance to the organization; 2. Focus of the IS team on relating information system activities and products to the organization goals and critical success factors they support; 3.

Providing senior management with an increased understanding of, and a greater ability, to control the organization’s information systems; 4. Assistance to the organization in gaining and maintaining a competitive advance in the marketplace by identifying strategic use of information technology; 5. Decreasing the time required to bring new applications into productive use, and reducing the maintenance problems associated with keeping them cost effective and productive; 6. Involving users more effectively in information systems development through the increased use of techniques such as joint application development and roto typing ; 7. Improving the quality of information systems software by increasing the rigor of methods used to create it, and by basing the systems design on data and activity models of the underlying business. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 35 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Reeve and Cornelius (1993) write: ¦ Information Systems are the servants of business needs (not the other way around); ¦ Information Technology is the servant of information requirement (not the other way around). Though both statements are true it does make sense to align the strategies in order to gain advantage.

As shown in figure 14 there are several ways to ensure alignment. Figure 14: Business to IT alignment Driving Towards Business Results Processes Strategy Business Results Technology Path Potential business impact Process change only Technology change only Combining process and technology change Technology enabled strategy and execution im rovement p im rovement p im rovement p New business (step change) Source:Hewlett-Packard 1995 Through process change, technology change or a combination of both it is possible to improve the business result.

A real breakthrough can only be reached adopting a technology © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 36 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version enabled strategy. For example if a new company strategy is to “provide the customer with information on the status of their order and order volume” this can be done by changing the reporting process of the order administration. Adding a new order-tracking system could provide customers with a on-line information system with the actual order status of the moment.

In this case the process changes and the technology enables the change, thus improving the total process. The urge to fundamental analyses and radical redesign of business processes to drastically improve an organizations performance to meet today’s competitive requirements, in terms of costs, quality, service and speed, is common in many organizations. This process, which is sometimes also called Business Process Re-engineering, is using the process and technology change to achieve breakthrough results. The way IT is being used has an influence on the business impact of the IT systems.

Where organizations in the past used IT in a purely functional or cross functional way the demands of the nineties make it necessary for many organizations either to use IT in a process management way or ultimately redesign their entire processes. The importance of this should not be underestimated; if the expectation of the principal of a project and that of the organization are not in line there is bound to be a problem. An IT project has an impact on the organization. Depending on the kind of project, the impact can be different. (Figure 15) © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 7 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version Figure 15: Four Stages of IT Impact Four Stages of IT Impact High Stage 4: Process redesign: IT enables processes to be redesigned Potential Business Impact Stage 3: Process management: Functional organisation is supplemented by direct management of processes, enabled by IT Stage 2: Cross-functional integration: Computer systems are integrated but functional organisation persists Low Stage 1: Functional automation: Computer systems automate functions independently Low Business Process change High

Hewlett-Packard , 1995 GIS projects can be in different stages of this model. Complex GIS projects not only require information from different departments within the organization but also demand a certain organizational structure around the information. If a total GIS systems uses 3 different departments as an information source it is necessary to make appointments about, for instance, the moment to update, the way the GIS database can be used and the ownership of the data. Only providing data is often not enough, organizational appointments have to be made.

If a GIS is used to reach a breakthrough, for instance using a GIS and GPS to provide information to a fleet of trucks for optimal routing and availability of cargo, this will also © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 38 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version require strict appointment with the purchase and sales departments and the truckers themselves. 2. 5. Choosing the appropriate development methodology for a GIS project. Choosing the appropriate development methodology depends on the situation.

The “one fits all” methodology unfortunately does not exist. Currently, combinations of information engineering and proto typing are used. The basic thought behind information engineering is that data is the most stable factor when developing an information system. This method specially is useful in a project with the following characteristics: ¦ High uncertainty of specifications; ¦ Need of decision support systems; ¦ Low expertise in this field of current users; ¦ High level of uncertainty concerning the exact specifications of GIS.

On the other hand if a current system has to be replaced the best choice of a method is probably SSADM (Structured Analysis and Design) which was produced by CCTA a UK government agency (Reeve and Cornelius, 1993). SSADM presumes that there is an existing manual or computersystem and analyses first the existing system and, on that basis, specifications for the new system are made. In general, traditional System Analysis takes a lot of time which makes this methodology less and less popular. A project analysis and feasibility study easily takes 0. 5 – 1 years of time.

Considering the fact that product life cycles are diminishing all the time this is often much too long. The next table shows traditional versus Rapid Application Development times. Traditional in this case means that, for instance the prototype is a limited program that simulates the © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 39 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version required functionality of a very simple application (a mainframe approach). A client-server pilot is a sophisticated version of the production system that is functional from the beginning but is limited in number of users, speed and functions.

DEVELOPMENT TIME: TRADITIONAL VERSUS RAPID APPLICATION Phase Traditional Client-server prototype 1-6 months pilot system 1-3 weeks feasibility continuous final user specifications 1-6 months 3 months – 1 year included in the pilot system system design 6 months – 3 years production system 9 – 20 coding weeks 3 months – 1 year for most continuous, 1 week for most testing and revision changes changes total time 1 – 6 years 10 – 20 weeks (Adapted from Donevan, 1994) In order to use of techniques to best effect most systems currently are designed as clientserver systems.

Whereas the life cycle of a mainframe is > 10 years the life cycle of a PC (with the same power as the mainframe of less then 10 years ago! ) which is being used as a client in a server client configuration may be less then 1 year. The life cycle is getting shorter and shorter due to the development of more advanced, and resource consuming, software. If, in a project, we foresee development times of several years we can be sure that all hardware will be outdated by the time the project is finished.

Furthermore it is important to undertake development is such a way that it is possible to use technological innovations in the field of our project. Also it is very likely that innovations will enable to do things which nobody was aware of when the project started. If the chosen methodology enables this, it is of great help. Van den Berg (1996) of the province of Utrecht says in a interview concerning GIS: “You know what you want, if you see what is possible. However a GIS environment will be used to the utmost if users, up front, explain what they expect in the field of information, analysis and presentation.

This is a dilemma”. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 40 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version How to handle such a dilemma? On of the ways is using Rapid Application Development and Joint Application Development Methodologies. 2. 5. 1 Rapid Application Development/Joint Application Development Probably the most difficult task in a project is to define what has to be built. In order to do this the client has to tell what the GIS system should look like. But in practice: ‘They don’t know! ‘ because also for them it is the first system of this kind so they lack the knowledge which comes from experience. There is no question; the geographic information represents a critical element of the information technology structure. But we find ourselves struggling with what that means and how it can be implemented” (Odenwalder, quoted by Wilson, 1996). Of course there is usually a rough idea about the kind of solution they are looking for but to specify exactly what it should look like is often impossible. Nevertheless there has to be consensus on this issue since it provides the criteria on which the project will be accepted or not.

The basic problem is the knowledge base of the client at the beginning of the project as represented in Figure 16: Figure 16: Project Life Cycle PROJECT LIFE CYCLE PLANNING DELIVERY SUPPORT DEFINE BUILD USE Knowledge K B – K n o w ledge Tim e T H E S O L U T IO N © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 41 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version The moment the client needs to know most, during specification, the amount of knowledge is very limited. The result is often a set of unworkable specifications with which the principal tries to describe every situation.

Project managers have learnt through many disappointments that such projects generally fail. The knowledge base of the clients can be considered in terms of white spots and black spots of knowledge. Figure 17 shows the 4 knowledge quadrants: Figure 17: Knowledge base of the client KNOWLEDGE BASE OF THE CLIENT KNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN U/K 3 U/U 4 KNOWN K/K 2 K/U 1 As shown there are 4 situations: 1. Known/Unknown, there is an awareness that some things about the GIS are not known at the moment and have to be found out during the project; 2.

Known/Known, these are the things which are certain; it is a GIS for 3 departments with 40 users; © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 42 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 3. Unknown/Known, the things which have to be assumed as the client knows he/she does not know; number of objects is not known but will not be above 2 million objects; 4. Unknown/Unknown, the things which the client doesn’t know he/she doesn’t know; e. g. due to a reorganization the clients department will stop existing.

In this context it is not so difficult to understand why creating functional and technical specifications is a difficult task. For these reasons Rapid Application Development (RAD) and Joint Application Development (JAD) has become widely applied in the last few years. RAD and JAD make it possible to work in a itterative way thus gaining knowledge of the Unknowns in Figure 17 during the proces. Human beings almost never perform a complex task correctly the first time. However, people are extremely good at making a mediocre beginning and then making small refinements and improvements.

RAD and JAD make use of this principle. RAD is one of the Software Development Life Cycle Methodologies (Martin, 1995) that produces quality applications in a short time. RAD is characterized by: { Iterative development approach; { Heavy emphasis on enterprise and data modeling; { Use of automated tools for rapid proto typing and code generation; { Active end-user involvement throughout life cycle; { Relies on reusable code, forms modules. (Baum, 1992) © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 43 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version

The heart of RAD is rapid prototyping ; creating a working model from the requirements to verify business functions and operational characteristics. As users are heavily involved in this process they give constant input, have a lot of involvement and consequently accept the end results. RAD starts with Joint Application Development. “The basis idea of JAD is to select key end-users and conduct workshops that progress through a structured set for planning and designing a system” (Martin, 1995). During the JAD sessions a system is planned and designed. Based on this design a prototype is build.

This prototype can have the following functions: 1 Learn during building; 2 Proof of concept; 3 Introduction and testing of new concepts; 4 Understanding the true complexity. Prototypes can either be thrown away or evolve. The constant feedback and feedback loops provide an optimal possibility to reach the maximum end-result by constant interaction with and acceptance from the client. 2. 6. Summary There is little experience with complex GIS projects which are strategic of nature. Rapidly changing business environments require organizations to find appropriate strategies.

Implementing GIS can be one of these strategies. Traditional methodologies like the Waterfall approach require a detailed user understanding of what the end result should look like. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 44 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version GIS projects have usually a few key characteristics: { High uncertainty of exact specifications; { Limited experience of users; { Moving into “new” fields of automation. For this reason a iterative approach like Rapid Application Development is suitable as a methodology for GIS projects.

In chapter 3 the way actually to implement such a methodology in a GIS project is described. © 1997 Hans Bestebreurtje, MSc UNIGIS 45 Master Thesis: GIS Project management Final Version 3 3. 1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR GIS Introduction The previous chapters describe the life cycle of GIS projects and the methodologies which are useful. But how to apply this knowledge when doing an actual project? Based on the life cycle and methodology principles outlined above in this chapter an approach towards an actual project is proposed.

The assumption is made that the GIS project is of a strategic nature and involves several departments of an organization. Finding the appropriate guidelines is not easy. Not many GIS projects of this magnitude of complexity have been conducted and even fewer have been documented. The approach in this chapter is based primarily upon the PRINCE handbook (Bradley, 1993) for project management which is primarily meant for Government projects. PRINCE is an abbreviation of PRojects IN Controled Environments and is the standard project management method for Government (in the UK) IT departments approved by the CCTA.

Basically PRINCE is the definition of the products to be produced by a project. When using the Structured Systems Analysis Design Methodology (SSADM) PRINCE is the project management methodology to be used. SSADM however is, as argued in chapter 2, not always applicable to GIS projects. Methodologies like RAD/JAD have to be used. By extension PRINCE is not always applicable. The argument here is that a specificific management approach for strategic GIS needs to be developed.

This involved combining PRINCE with “The Customer Project Life Cycle”(Hewlett-Packard, 1995) which is the mandatory project management approach of Hewlett-Packard and

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