The exhaustion of crude oil, planetary heating, a crisp addition in oil monetary values, and strategic competition of car industry, those current issues addition demand for green auto. Until 2006, People did n’t much concern about fuel monetary value, because the highest point of international oil monetary values was merely about 50 dollar per a barrel. The accumulate gross revenues volume of HEV was about five 100 1000, which is on one per centum of entire figure of vehicles in the universe.
However, the size of green auto market expanded twice in 2007, caused by a large leap in oil monetary values. The crude oil ingestion by emerging states such as China and India has surged. Otherwise new oilfields can non be discovered. Those cause instability between supply and demand supply and demand of oil, and oil monetary values are expected to stay high for rather a long clip. Therefore, most of analysts forecast the changeless growing in green auto market.
Another factor speed uping green auto development is domestic environmental ordinances. Harmonizing to vehicle emanation ordinance issued by EU, autos produced from 2012 will hold restriction on the mean C dioxide emanations to 130g/km. US authorities has a program to obligatory maintain more than 12 % of green auto ratio among entire gross revenues volume to all auto shapers. Under those fortunes, auto shapers rush into green auto development.
The intent of green auto is to diminish pollutants cut downing usage of dodo fuel, finally achieve Zero Emission Vehicle ( ZEV ) ( Yang 2008 ) . After all, from Internal Combustion Engine ( ICE ) to viz. ‘Green Car ‘ such as Clean Diesel, Hybrid Electric Vehicle ( HEV ) , Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle ( PHEV ) , Fuel Cell Electric Hybrid Vehicle ( FCEV ) , Electric Vehicle ( EV ) , they are classified by ‘how much electric energy auto uses ‘ . [ Table 1 ] shows types of Green autos and definitions.
In the early of 1990, Ni-MH cells formed stable market replacing Ni-Cd. Ni-MH battery is non expensive and non explosive particularly comparing to Li-ion. With those advantages, Toyota Prius, Camry, Honda Civic, BMW x6 are lading Ni-MH batteries. However, tendencies of rechargeable batteries are in front for high capacity but minimising ( KISTI 2009 ) . In this context, advanced Lithium type batteries are at the bosom of the coming moving ridge of electric autos and plug-in loanblends.
Recently, Li-ion battery received public attending to be discussed about new engineering for EV/PHEV. Sing the coming of Li-Ion cells, Sony foremost commercialized it in 1992 for electronic devices. From this point, Li-ion battery applied for nomadic phones, MP3Ps, notebooks, net books, and so on. It has an advantage of light weight, but besides disadvantaged of vulnerableness to heat. For illustration, it is known as a doing factor of ‘battery detonation ‘ occurred in Mobiles and notebooks. And this is why Toyota adheres to Ni-MH battery for Prius ( LG Business Insight 2008 ) .
Latest engineering tendencies of electric-car battery are following advanced Li-Ion types such as Li-Ion Battery, Lithium Polymer Batteries ( LPB ) etc. For case, Hyundai loads LPB to its HEV. In other words, LG Chem ‘s LPB will be loaded to 2011 YF Sonata, Avante Hybrid, Forte LPI. Furthermore, former Ni-MH user Toyota announced the program to lade Li-Ion Battery to HEV, expected to travel on bring forthing in 2011. And Honda will sell PHEV and EV with Li-Ion from 2012. [ Table 2 ] compares features between Ni-MH and Li-Ion.
For more available Li-Ion Batteries, car corporations face the jobs of cost cut and battery continuance. Most of intercrossed vehicles take in Ni-MH type batteries including Toyota Prius, Camry, BMW x6 and so on, and this is because of cheap monetary value. In malice of heavy weight and hebdomad storage capacity, 80~90 per centum of HEV follow Ni-MH batteries. For case, Mitsubishi i-MiEV ( EV with Li-Ion ) costs twice than Toyota Prius ( HEV with Ni-MH ) ( Park et al. 2010 ) . Battery shapers are viing in monetary value decrease and bettering its quality.
However, it is non sufficient for doing a contract to provide HEV/EV batteries. Traveling its nucleus systems from ICE to electric systems, auto makers multiply their confederation strategically and technically for new merchandise development. For developing hybrid/electric auto batteries, which are slightly new merchandises, partnership with co-developer is besides critical factor, based on proficient capableness and resources. At the undermentioned portion, scheme of LG Chem is analyzed.
In 2001, LG Chem established R & A ; D subordinate Compact Power Intercorporate ( CPI ) in Detroit known as the universe ‘s traditional automotive centre. Lee Young Han said, set uping R & A ; D subordinate in Detroit was aiming co-development with US auto shapers. From this point, LG Chem showed more aggressive activities such as take parting in pool. In 2004, they participated in United States Advanced Battery Consortium ( USABC ) established by US DOE and 3 major auto shapers ( GM, Ford, Chrysler ) .
LG Chem obtained an order from this pool, and it became large chance to be officially recognized their proficient capableness. With the assurance of engineering, LG Chem tried to co-develop with GM because engineering of LG Chem and its end coincide 1s of GM Volt. GM wanted lighter battery congratulating its defect, vulnerable to heat. The Volt is designed to utilize new lithium-ion battery battalions, which hold a charge longer than the nickel metal hydride batteries presently in usage.
One job is that these are known to overheat and catch fire. They are nevertheless lighter and already in widespread usage in consumer electronics such as laptops and cell phones. GM Volt home page, January 13, 2007 In 2007, GM Volt selected LG Chem as R & A ; D spouse and begun to co-develop Li polymer batteries. LG Chem was non merely spouse to GM Volt, nevertheless, US battery shaper A123 besides join co-development every bit good.
Most of related people expected that A123 would be concluding victor at GM Volt battery lucifer. Peoples might pretermit that LG Chem was non an amateur. For developing batteries for HEV/EV, LG Chem has co-developed with Hyundai since 2002. Furthermore, LG Chem has supplied hybrid-car batteries to Hyundai since 2007. Unexpectedly but non surprisingly, LG Chem became the victor with contract to provide lithium polymer batteries to GM Volt.