These different approaches, when integrated together, can allow a person to change their thought process, their behavior and give them freedom from their pain and stress. Keywords: diagnosis, treatment, disorders people diagnosed with mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder, dyslectic disorder and bipolar disorder make up about 9. 5% of the US population (NAME). This population not only has been diagnosed with one disorder, but many have multiple disorders, such as depression linked with anxiety, and/or substance abuse.
Those who have been diagnosed with oppression or a combination of disorders (commodity) are at a greater risk for harming themselves and others. The National Institute of Mental Health (2013) stated that more than 90% of people who commit suicide each year have been previously diagnosed with a mood disorder such as the ones listed above. While depression is common, it is also a very serious disorder that some may take lightly when first diagnosed. Depression can be caused by several combinations of different factors, like genetics, biology and their environment.
For some people, having family members who suffer from oppression, makes them more vulnerable to symptoms of depression. Depression Overview There are several different forms of depressive disorder a person can be diagnosed with. The most common are: major depressive disorder, dysphasia, seasonal affective disorder, and bipolar disorder. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2013) major depressive disorder is the most severe form Of depression a person can be diagnosed with. This form Of depression disrupts a person’s ability to sleep, work, eat, and participate in activities they would normally partake in.
Major depressive disorder was scribed by the PAP (2013) as occurring only once or twice in a person’s lifetime, but the symptoms much be prevalent for at least a ;o week time period. While this disorder is the most severe, it is short lived. However, Persistent depressive disorder (POD) is chronic, meaning; it is a long term condition. The symptoms of POD are usually evident for two or more years prior to proper diagnosis (PAP, 2013). As with major depressive disorder, symptoms present themselves as a lack of interest in activities one once enjoyed, a constant sad or down feeling, low self-esteem and excessive eroticism Of oneself.
According to Khakis & Miramar (2010) diagnosis can be difficult when trying to identify whether an individual has major depressive disorder or POD due to the similar symptoms. POD should be present most days, for a span of two years or more. Prior to the change in the ADSM-5 manual, POD was called dysphasia or dyslectic disorder; however with new updates the name has been changed. Seasonal Affective Disorder, or as some people refer to as SAD, is a diagnosis given to people who are more depressed during the winter months or when there is less sunlight.
According o the National Institute of Mental Health (2013) individuals who live in northern areas of the united States are more prone to periods of SAD because of the extended period of reduced sunlight between the fall and winter months. Bipolar disorder is the next form of depression this paper will address. Bipolar disorder is, according to Wang & Kenny (2014) considered a manic-depressive illness, moving it into the depression category. The American Psychiatric Association (2013) does separate both depression and bipolar disorder; however, both are equally important to acknowledge together.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health (2013) bipolar disorder is characterized by changing in the mood cycle, from extreme highs or extreme lows. Wang & Kenny (2014) wrote that extreme highs are to be considers as manic or mania, extreme lows on the Other hand are to be considered depression. Much like depressive disorders, bipolar disorder contains four basic types. The PAP (2013) states they are, bipolar I, bipolar II, bipolar- not otherwise specified and cyclorama. Wang & Kenny (2014) introduced another form of bipolar disorder, called, rapid cycling bipolar disorder.
Rapid cycling bipolar is when a person has 4 or more episodes of major depression, hypotonic, mania or a mixture of them within a one year time span (PAP, 2013). Wang & Kenny (2014) stated that this form of bipolar disorder has been known to come and go, additionally, it has been found to be more prevalent when younger children are first diagnosed with the disorder. Each disorder contains their own specific forms, with their own specific criteria. However, all forms are equally important to consider when making a proper diagnosis since there is a large amount of overlap between disorders and their symptoms.
According to Kaufman & Abacus (2013) depression and anxiety are the two most prevalent mental health disorders diagnosed. They went on to emphasize that depression is usually the first disorder diagnosed, as it has clear signs. In addition, anxiety is usually not noticeable due to the overshadowing symptoms of depression. Current research suggests that depression overshadows many other disorders, thus allowing the other disorders to continue to fester until they are noticed. A major point, stated by Kaufman & Abacus (2013) is that one does not necessary cause the other however, they went on to state that one can lead o finding another.
Dry. German (1998) wrote that patients who have disorders such as, panic, generalized anxiety, social phobia and other anxiety disorders are 85% more likely to be diagnosed with combine depression. Commodity is the presence of two or more conditions (German, (1998). While treatment will be later discussed, it is important to note that Dry. German (1998) believes the number one key to successfully treating a person with more than one disorder is to quickly determine what the disorders are, in fact, he wrote early recognition is imperative.
While recognition is imperative, Kaufman & Abacus 2013) state that while these disorders are likely to occur together, they are even more likely to have different origins and underlying causes. Potential Causes of Depression Biological Causes of Depression A lot is unknown regarding the biological causes of depression; however, over the course of several years researchers have made extensive progress in identifying areas that potentially cause individuals to become more susceptible to depression.
The brain, the command center of the human body, controls basic functions, such as, thoughts, emotions and our movement. Within the brain there are several structures that can be changed just enough to cause problems with those three main areas (Arroyos et al. 2007). Researchers, Arroyos, Richmond, Harris & Tomb (2007) identified the limbic system, neurotransmitters, and hormones to be the main biological causes of depression. The limbic system regulates a person’s emotions, stress response, as well as physical and sexual drives (Price, 2013).
Within the limbic system there are different structures; one important structure is the pituitary gland, which regulates key hormones. If these hormones are not at normal evils it could cause a change in a person’s mood or behavior (Price, 2013). Arroyos et al. (2007) identified neurotransmitters as the second important part of the brain; neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry out all different functions. The functions are generally messages to different areas of the brain. There are many different neurotransmitters, however, Arroyos et al. (2007) identified three key ones; serotonin, morphogenesis and dopamine.
These three chemicals are in charge of regulating emotions, a person’s physical need for sleep, food, and sex. In addition, neurotransmitters also regulate how people react to stress. Stress is not a good thing for people to have in excess. When a person is stressed or dealing with a stressful situation their body releases the hormone cortical. Salsa et al. (2011 ) stated that individuals who are depressed have excess levels of cortical in their blood. When a person has constant high levels of cortical in their blood stress it creates a sense of constant stressful feelings.
Salsa et al. (2011) noted that with constant high levels of cortical the body will generally have lower levels of serotonin and dopamine, which can lead to depression in people who are generally more susceptible to it, or o those who have a greater genetic and environmental component. Genetic Causes of Depression According to Salsa et al. (2011) causes of depression are 50% genetic and 50% unrelated to genetics. The 50% unrelated might be caused by family, work and friends, while the genetic 50% may be related to genes we have inherited from our parents.
There has yet to be specific genes identified that determine if a person is predisposed to depression, however, it is clear there is some genes controlling this likelihood. According to Salsa et al. (201 1) genes have however been identified predisposing people to different resonantly traits, which can lead to behaviors that are more likely to cause a person to become more depressed. Kiering et al. (2014) stated that there are a few personality traits can pre-dispose a person the depressive disorders, such as, neurotics, “a personality trait that involves the tendency to react to events with greater than average negative affect” (p. 49). Kiering et al. (2014) also emphasized the idea that there are specific theories that can describe possible personality based causes, such as, Beck’s theory, hopelessness theory, and rumination theory. Beck’s theory suggests people are more susceptible to what was called a negative triad. The negative triad means, “Negative view of self, word and the future’ (p. 149). The hopelessness theory suggests Some people are more prone to feelings Of hopelessness, a distinct attribute of depression (Kiering et al. 2014). The rumination theory as Kiering et al. 2014) suggests are people who “dwell on sad experiences and thoughts,” this puts them, once again, at a greater risk of developing depression (Kiering et al. 2014, p. 152). While some people are predisposed to having a specific personality, a person’s environment can create a positive personality, active, making them vulnerable to this diagnosis. Environmental Causes of Depression Dry. Price (2013) wrote, “experiences we have in our lives can affect our state of mind” (p. 13). Dry. Price (2013) defined our environment as something outside ourselves.
This might be college stress, work stress, dealing with a traumatic situation, or the loss of a loved one, parents and peers play in important role in how we develop, making them the key to our outside environment. These life events unfortunately create a world unlike any other inside a person’s mind. Stress can occur as a result of negative events, but also positive events like weddings, starting a new job and being accepted into colleges. Whether a person experiences a positive or negative situation stress can cause depression due to, as previously mentioned, abnormal levels of cortical, serotonin and dopamine levels in the body.
Salsa et al. (2011) noted that the environmental or external effects on a person that cause depression are generally happening indirectly, without a person understanding or recognizing it. For instance, some people may think they are fine; however, they struggle with worrying and stress all the time. That person may eventually find they sleep more, they are becoming less social, less enthusiastic about leaving to go to work and within a couple months they realize they have major signs of depression. Salsa et al. 2011) described these as extremely subtle changes that lead to a major overall problem. While this may seem biological, the stem of the depression was from the environmental stress, however, biology, genetics and the environment all play a role in the development of this disorder. Wang and Kenny (2014) studied that likelihood that parental discipline can play a role in the development of depression. Wang and Kenny (2014) recognized the different types of parental styles, one of which is authoritarian. This form of parenting style has been known to be neglectful, cold, and uncaring.
This may lead to children who are shy, quiet, and who are more likely to have negative feelings of themselves, making them more susceptible to depression. Diagnosis and Evaluation Diagnosing Depression For many people, lab or blood tests are conducted to find out what a specific problem is, however, for diagnosing depression doctors must rely on what a patient tells them. Symptoms speak loudly. There are many different assessments available for a doctor to use in order to better assist their patient in identifying specific problem areas.
A few of the inventories used are, Goldberg Inventory, the Wakefield Questionnaire, and Beck’s Depression Inventory. These are inventories that require an individual to check off responses to questions regarding how they are feelings and symptoms they have been having. These questions are specific to daily mood levels, lifestyle, and overall behaviors. Some doctors may not need inventories or questionnaires’ to determine a depression diagnosis. For some, it may be as impel as talking one on one with a client, some of the clients may be agitated, irritable, and overly quiet or extremely tired looking.
According to Crocked (2013) doctors can determine whether or not a person is depressed by determining what they do not have. For instance, doctors may run lab work to rule out what the symptoms cannot be. Once a doctor is able to determine a proper diagnosis treatment can begin, many times a doctor will recommend treatment by a professional in the field, such as a therapist. Treatment of Depression Therapeutic Treatment A known effective form of therapy for the treatment of depression is called cognitive behavioral therapy.
Researchers page & Hooked (201 1) studied the effectiveness of CB on 998 patients suffering from major depressive disorder, single episode or recurrent, and dyslectic disorder. Of the 998 73% were female, 27% male. 48% of those patients were being treated for depression as the primary diagnosis, and 82% as a secondary diagnosis. Of the 82% who had been treated with depression as a secondary diagnosis, 80% were actually suffering from primary anxiety disorders. This relates back to the idea that there is a substantial commodity in mental disorders.
Therapists were able to work with patients individually and in groups focusing on problem solving, thought process and how their reactions impacted their behavior (Seal, 2002). Patients were periodically given questionnaires that evaluated their progress. Over a 6-12 week period of all day treatment (3 days a week) more than 50% of patients with primary depression had an improved mood and energy level (Page & Hooked, 201 1). Additionally, roughly 62% of those who had secondary depression saw a marked improvement in their symptoms (Page & Hooked, 201 1 While this does not necessarily mean that
CB is the reason for the marked improvement, it does given clinicians an idea of proper treatment depending on symptoms and combine diagnoses. In addition to Page & Hooked (201 1), therapist, Jessica Price (2011) also studied the positive effects of CB in the treatment of depression in a specific case study. Price (201 1) wrote, “people who are prone to depression have a tendency to hold negative core beliefs about themselves, others and the future” (p. 9). Price (201 1) believed that CB focused sessions will greatly impact and diminish the negative core beliefs by challenging them.
Price 201 1) studied a 52 year old woman, who lost her husband seven years prior to therapy; she was struggling to take care of her TV daughters. The client came to therapy due to the constant feelings of being sad and down all the time. The client left her job as a nurse because she had too many incidents Of reports that she was anxious, not paying attention and not focused. Price (201 1), while using CB, developed a chart that specifically highlighted problem areas so that her client was able to visually see problems and could focus directly on positive change.
Price (2011) incorporated daily homework o assist her client in making small changes outside of the office. After 8 weeks, Price (2011) reevaluated her client through the use of Beck’s Depression inventory, while little change was made for her client, Price (2011) believed that due to the serious underlying beliefs of her client major progress will take time. One of her client’s problems was that she had a hard time getting up and making it into the office for therapy. Price (2011) recommended she see a psychiatrist to find medication that can help her. Price (2011) believed that some people need medication.
While some people live medication makes a person look weak, Price (2011) believed everyone has different cognitive wiring and, much like her client, may need medication to stabilize her mood in order to allow her to begin to make progress in therapy. Treatment with Medication Medications have been known to assist in effectively controlling serious symptoms of depression (Khakis, & Miramar, 2011 According to Khakis & Miramar (201 1) antidepressants are the most popular treatment option with psychiatrists. Usually, antidepressants can take a couple weeks to begin really making an impact on a person’s behavior.
There are a few popular types of drugs, known as Girl’s and Snarls. Girl’s stand for selective serotonin eruptive inhibitors, while Jinni’s stand for serotonin and morphogenesis eruptive inhibitors. Khakis & Miramar (2011) stated that SARI’S are currently the most popular from of antidepressants, common drug names are, Approach, Zloty and Paxar. Snarls are one of the second most popular drugs; common names of Snarls are Pristine and Cymbal. As mentioned earlier, causes of depression can be due to problems with a lack of serotonin and morphogenesis in the brain.
The medications in these categories allow the rain to take in these neurotransmitters, reliving some symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. Spiritual and Lifestyle Treatment Therapy and medication are the best known treatment options for defeating depression, however, Saris et al. (2014) believe that people have the ability to control how feel and it allows people to control their disorder without medication and therapy. There are a few elements in peoples’ lives they can control, such as diet, exercise, sleep, limiting recreational substances, mindful- meditation, social interaction and environmental factors.
Saris et al. 2014) wrote that it is interesting to look at the possible link between diet and depression or other mood disorders. For instance, they noted that obesity in western culture is increasing rapidly, coincidentally, so is depression. Dietary modifications can really change a person’s mood, sometimes from low, sad, bad feelings, to energetic, upbeat feelings. It was earlier mentioned that cortical, a chemical, is released into the body when Stress is higher. High levels of cortical can be related to later diagnoses of depression. Saris et al. 2014) wrote that exercising when stressed can actually reduce the amount of artists released into the body. Additionally, exercise released positive endorphins that increase a person’s mood, making them feel better. Exercise does not have to be boring, many places now have fun activities like Samba, ploy, yoga and Palates. While many of these classes are challenging, they are fun and exciting and will seriously help decrease a negative moods. Sleep is extremely important; sleep is usually disturbed when a person is suffering from a disorder like depression. Some people sleep too much, some too little.
According to Saris et al. (2014) having a proper sleeping patter is very important to keep your body healthy and in shape. Saris et al. (2014) research showed that in a study of 2,624 people suffering from depression, more than 64% suffered from sleep problems. Of that 64%, 49% reported sleeping too much, while the remainder suffered from severe insomnia. Saris et al. (2014) noted that sleep is vital to overall wellness and essential. Some people, who suffer from depression and are not sleeping well, can be attributed to recreational substance. Saris et al. 2014) makes it clear that those who are suffering from depression should avoid alcohol, drugs, and mooing, not only is it generally bad for you, but mixing any of these substances with medication can be poor for a person’s health. When it comes to working on creating positive social interactions Saris et al. (2014) believe that our family and friends impact our lives in both positive and negative manners. One way to make sure we are not negatively impacted by friends is to pick them wisely. While this seems simple Saris et al. (2014) say it is extremely challenging, however, it can be done.
One of the best ways to make sure friends are picked that will be a positive influence on people is to learn ho we are as individuals. Pick friends that like similar things. Saris et al. (2014) went on to say religious and spiritual beliefs are important to keeping a person grounded and protected from negative aspects of life. Sarajevo et al. (2008) concurred by saying that when people are depressed they tend to alienate themselves from others, and their higher power. When depressed it is important to work hard to keep the connection with the Lord. He will help find comfort and hope in life. He will give people guidance and support.
Sarajevo et al. (2008) wrote that focusing on the Lord will give people motivation and strength to keep pushing forward in their life. He described this because many people who suffer from chronic depression are at a greater risk for having suicidal ideation or even for committing suicide. Living for the Lord may also give people some solace in that they are not alone; they have Him to turn to. He understands and can empathic with them and their struggles. Sarajevo et al. (2008) finalized their research by stating that it is not just about communicating with the Lord, it is about learning how to find peace with oneself.
Prevention Of depression is extremely difficult, as there are many factors that can cause depression. Some forms may not be preventable, however, they are treatable. The key to making sure depression is treated is understanding and recognizing the signs and symptoms. If depression signs and symptoms can be noticed quickly, there will be a better response time from healthcare professionals and remediation can begin. The researchers that have been explored in this paper have shown that there are genetic, biological, environmental and psychological causes of depression, many times depression cannot be prevented.
As we have learned, controlling stress, seeking out treatment from healthcare professionals and reaching out to family and friends is important to controlling a person’s depression if it cannot be avoided. Researchers have indicated that depression seems to be overshadowing other disorders, making it even more imperative that it be diagnosed quickly. Disorders, such as, anxiety and bipolar disorder can not only be overshadowed by depression, they can also be the cause of depression. As readers have learned, depression is extremely prevalent in the United States and becoming even more prevalent.