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In the sass Nicholas Lebanon discovered that lye could be made from any ordinary table salt. Lye, which is sodium hydroxide, is one of the main ingredients in soap. This discovery made Soap affordable for a lot more people. North America’s soap industry began in the early 1 ass’s. Early settlers in North America had made their own soap in kettles. Manufacturers improvements on soap have been big. They have improved the cleaning abilities, color, fragrance, and mildness in soap. Soap is a substance made to help clean things. Fats and chemicals called alkalis are the two main ingredients in soap.

Sometimes animal fats or vegetable oils like coconut oil, olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, and corn oil are common fats used in soap making. Most cornrow alkalis used are sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. When you combine these fats with a water solution of an alkali and add heat the fats decompose forming glycerin and the sodium salt of the fatty acid. The key ingredient of soap is the sodium salt of the fatty acid. Before the 1 ass’s large kettles were used by manufacturers to make soap. Today manufacturers use steel tanks holding thousands of pounds of ingredients.

A component of soap called surface-active agents or surfactants allow soap to remove grease and other dirt. “Surfactants consist of molecules that attach themselves to dirt particles in solid material. ” (from world book encyclopedia deeded. ) Soaps’ cleaning process consists of getting the solid material wet. The surfactant increases the wetting ability of water by making the water spread out. The reduction of water’s surface tension is what makes this happen. Then the particles of dirt are removed from the material. One part of the molecule attracts water and the other part attracts dirt.

Any rubbing motion helps to pull the dirt from the soiled surface. After the particles are in the water the surfactant molecules keep the particles separated, so they don’t resettle into the previously soiled surface. After that the surfactant holds the dirt particle in water until rinsed away. Bubbles are made from soap with water. “Surface tension is a force that causes the surface Of liquids to behave in certain world book encyclopedia deeded. ) The molecules of water on the surface are difficult to stretch due to the strength of its surface tension. A bubble is the stretching of he surface layer of a liquid.

Soap reduces the surface tension of the water allowing bubbles to form. A bubble is like an envelope surrounding a gas, usually air. A bubble has soap molecules that form layers inside and outside the bubble film. A bubble has three layers: an outer layer made up of soap molecules, middle layer consisting of mostly water molecules with a few soap molecules, and the third layer is also the inner layer and is made up of soap molecules. The bubbles usually pull themselves into the shape of a sphere because a sphere is the shape with the smallest surface area.

It also could be pulled into a box, football, or another shape or frame, but that would require the bubble to stretch even more. The pop of the bubble can be up to speeds of 30 miles per hour or km/h. Many things affect the life span of a bubble. The easiest way to pop a bubble is to physically break the surface. Any slight force to the bubble will disrupt the three surface layers described earlier. Wind or air movement, and shocks and vibrations will shorten the life span of a bubble. Another cause of the popping of the bubble is the evaporation of the water layer Of the bubble.

Gravity is bad for bubbles because the gravity causes the water to drain from the top of the sphere to the base of the bubble. Loss of the water layer causes it to burst. Carbon dioxide is one of the poisons to a bubble along with dust particles and impurities. Excess fat or excess caustic alkali in the bubble solution will shorten the life of the bubble. The humidity in the surrounding air is good for bubbles because it keeps the bubble moist and prevents evaporation. Glycerin added to the soap solution can increase the lifetime of the bubble.

The glycerin reduces the evaporation process enabling the bubble to last longer. In place of glycerin you can use sugar, Kara syrup, or gelatin. If you can control the atmosphere around the bubble you will also increase the life span Of the bubble. You can do this by putting the bubble in a jar of moist air and protecting it from impurities and forces that can harm it. The moist air in the jar acts as humidity and allows the bubble to last longer. David Stein is the inventor of The Bubble Thing. The Bubble Thing is a device that can produce bubbles up to the size of a small car.

The Bubble Thing is made in such a way that it can be dunked into a large bucket of bubble solution. A fabric loop is made of a material with large pores that can hold a lot of solution. The loop is attached to a stick, which is waved like a wand to introduce air into the soap film. David Stein stresses the importance of high humidity, cool temperatures, and little or no wind to make the largest bubbles. The chemistry of soap products and bubble formation is important for cleaning. Soaps are made up of different ingredients and can contain additives.

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