Literature Review B. F. Skinner used the reinforcement theory to positively encourage the mouse to find a way out and get cheese and today, Managers make use of enforcement theories to motivate employees. Reinforcing positive behavior allows the managers to determine what can be expected from their employee(s). Datum (2009) says that positive reinforcement helps in homes, schools, offices and almost anywhere. Reinforcement is supportive in increasing the chances of certain behavioral response.
The probability of behavior can be increased by increasing the stimulus to which the individual or employee responds. The primary reinforces are physical stimuli and the appreciation and non-monetary rewards are the secondary reinforcing agents. Punishment serves as negative reinforces while gratitude serves as positive reinforces. People are inclined to different reinforcing factors based on their personality-type, the kind of environment they were brought up in and the things that are inculcated into their minds.
The pleasure-pain principle suggests that some people are motivated better when they find pleasure in doing something, while, others may not indulge into an activity unless they find pain by not doing them. For example, getting ill due to over- eating and excessive weight gain is a negative reinforcing factor that will help n individual adopt a routine of healthy (adequate) eating choices and light exercising such as walking, etc. Reinforcement works differently in different environments.
Some environments are better suitable for the positive reinforcement while the others are better for the negative reinforcement. However, in most of cases the positive reinforcement is considered more effective and useful (Deletion, Needier, Enders, and Rodriguez, 2001). The reinforcement of behavior is backed by some needs that can be personal, social or organizational. People even use these strategies for helping people tit psychological problems since they are not able to show response in normal conditions without induced stimuli.
The stimuli in positive method should be such that they can be easily arranged as required. On the other hand, the negative factors should also not be too critical to result into a rebellious behavior of the subject. The common examples of positive stimulus or positive reinforcement includes but not limited to; offering gifts to children on getting good grades, paying extra amount for labor projects that were completed on time and/or increasing the salary of an employee or even rumoring him/her.
The example of negative reinforcement or negative stimuli includes but not limited to; punishing a child for not completing homework, asking an employee to sit late in office for not meeting sales target, etc. The type of reinforcement should not be selected based on the choices of manager, but, these choices should be made based on the behavior. Negative reinforcement should not be used unless the positive reinforcement factors have failed (Cosgrave, 2007). Positive behavior of an employee is desired not only to make the system efficient, but, also to get the bob merely done in the first place.
While reinforcing a behavior, the management of a company or the parents at home or the teachers at schools should be confident that the reinforcement agent will be effective in the long term. For example, it is not possible to promote an employee every time he completes a project or give gifts to the successful child every time he passes the exam and/or give the child candy every time he/she finishes his work on time. Secondary stimuli, making the contribution known and setting higher and more respectable targets can also serve as reinforcing factors that may e guaranteed in the long run.
Deletion, Needier, Enders unauthorized (2001) say that the positive reinforcement is very effective and has found to be helpful especially when positive behavior is to be evoked in the children with autism and other psychological diseases. Teen et al (2014) say that friendly enforcement techniques are helpful for professionals as well as nonprofessionals. Treatment B. F. Skinners and many others have found that positive reinforcement is effective in evoking positive psychological behavior. Skinner described positive reinforcement in his mice study and it was a SUccess.
My clients (investors) believe in me, value and appreciate me, but, sometimes they try to assign me to tasks that are not related to my skills, and, I think they tend to do this based on their perception of my capabilities and behavior. Sometimes, the work pressure is very high because I am given many tasks that are mandatory and need to be completed in a very short time frame and this make me feel stressed at work because (sometimes) because I work from home-all alone in the State of Georgia and the physical aspects of my job is located in other states (D. C. Maryland area) and I have to rely on others to reform certain assignments in short time-frame. Therefore I suggest how reinforcement can be used in treating issues I face: Positive Reinforcement: I am requesting that my company provide me with an office space in Maryland- DC area where I can travel to every other month. Also, my working hours should remain the same with some flexibility. Further, my company should allow me to hire a part-time assistant to help take care of some of the footwork, I. E. , post court notices on doors, file legal paperwork in the courts, etc.
Next, I perform better between the hours of am to 3:pm and would eke to keep that schedule, if I can have an assistant. Therefore, I believe that if am afforded the opportunity to work during those times that suit me then my performance will be 110% better. Negative Reinforcement: The management can announce that my salary will be deducted if do not work for set number of hours every day. Also they can penalize me if for not completing my projects by its deadline dates which in return can also affect other projects in the company and lead to legal problems and loss of money.
The negative reinforcement should be given only once in a while and it should tot be introduced unnecessarily. What I wrote above is a good example of what I do as a Property Manager and I’ve described it in a way that would benefit me if worked for an Employer. I am self-employed and my job can be stressful at times, so I hire local contractors in D. C. -Maryland area to help me achieve of my work goals to reduce some of my stress. I think positive reinforcement is not only beneficial towards work-related behavior changes, but I would also suggest that people use positive reinforcement strategies to modify their own personal behavior as well.
I would like to suggest that all of us should help others adopt these strategies, too. Conclusion Without controlling behavior, a person cannot successfully perform the routine tasks of life. It is sometimes not possible for an individual to control his behavior and feel motivated. In such situations, external motivation factors are required that can be either appreciation or consequences for negative behavior. These positive and negative reinforcement factors should be used strategically because there are merits and demerits of each. Will prefer positive reinforcement because this will help me in feeling motivated ND engaged.