Thompson theorized h model of atomic structure in which negatively charged electrons were embedded in a sphere of positive electricity, neutralizing each other” (A Magic). Not only did Thompson win the Nobel Prize for his outstanding achievement, he also turned his attention towards positively charged tot discovered that neon gas was made up of a combination of two differed ions. He came to this conclusion by using magnetic and electric fields to deflect the positive ions of the gas onto two different parts of a photograph, plate.
Because of this experiment, Thompson clearly discovered the possibility that your average element might exist as isotopes. Right then here, he made his clear statement that cathode rays were indeed, mad’ particles and these particles came from within the atoms of the electrode themselves, meaning that atoms are in fact divisible. Because of this statement, Thompson proved Dalton wrong and came to his creation of Plum Pudding model. As time goes on, these incredible scientists find themselves creating new and exciting questions for those to come.
Thompson efforts to estimate the number of electrons in an atom unit the experiments of his student Ernest Rutherford. His conclusion of the is that it contains a positive nucleus surrounded by negative Orbiting electrons. His model also stated that the atom’s mass was mostly contain in the nucleus, while the rest was mostly empty space. Rutherford came this conclusion by his famous gold foil experiment. This experiment invite firing of radioactive particles through thin, gold, metal foils and detection them using a scintillation (screens covered with zinc sulfide).
He then off that the majority of the particles passed right through the foil and only 1 out of 8000 were deflected (Chemo Timeline). This experiment led h the theory that most of the atom was made up of empty space. Rutherford del of the nuclear atom proved Thompson model wrong by stating an atom consists of an electrically charged nucleus surrounded by alpha© particles called electrons. He then went even further and sought out a thought out explanation proving his scattering of the electrons. This is Rutherford Scattering Formula (Microscopic World Part 2).
Rutherford assumed that the positive energy concentrated in the nucleus and the a particles (electrons) are scattered with a repulsive Coulomb force. Basis the incident line is close to the nucleus, the trajectory of the electrons w. Be widely curved and would scatter. Rutherford formula fit very well to model and thus, his model of the nuclear atom became established in TTY modern world of science. Because of Rutherford model, a scientist by the name of Neil Boor elaborated on the Rutherford Model. Many people believe that Rutherford Atomic Theory is essentially the same as Boor’s Atomic model, but that is untrue.
Yes Boor’s model was inspired by Rutherford, but he built upon it. The main difference is the fact that Boor included a thesis for the forces that hold the atomic structure together. Boor’s model went further in depth to say hat the electrons orbit the nucleus. He then created quantum physics, because only a certain number of electrons can occupy each orbital. He assigned a quantum number to each orbital, considering the orbital closest to the nucleus are assigned the lowest number (Divot, Feldman). Electrons occupy the lowest energy levels closest to the nucleus first because they are “lazy”.
He also described that electrons jumping to a lower state gives off its energy in the form of light. This then, was how he described the quantum leap. This theory raised a lot of questions as to why the electrons can’t exist in teen quantum states. It is still unanswerable, but true of the entire quantum world. Boor’s model is a more primitive model of the Hydrogen atom and is very basic, but still a very important part of the later discoveries. In 1 932, James Chadwick made a very important discovery.
He found that the atom is not just made up of protons and electrons, but of particles called neutrons as well. He performed tests on new types of radiation which have mistakenly been called gamma rays for years. He first took a sample of Beryllium bombarded by alpha particles which cause it to create the radiation. Chadwick began to fit all the pieces of the puzzle together by noting that the “mysterious radiation was neutral due to the fact that it was not affected by proximity to a magnetic field, and, unlike standard gamma radiation, did not invoke the photoelectric effect” (McGee).
Instead, it discharged the protons, meaning that the particles had to be larger than expected. Chadwick then created an equation for solving the mass energy of the neutron. After his experiment, he used the equation to get a neutron mass of 938 +/- 1. 8 Move. Because of Chadwick, the atom is now more complete then ever and fundamentally correct. Through all the many scientists who helped discover the atom, I believe the above five are the most influential. John Dalton is the number one because he paved the afford further research.
He used all the knowledge he had and created the basic fundamentals of the atom. Even though Democratic was the first to question the atom, Dalton was the first to experiment and take matters into his own hands. I believe the second most influential would be Neil Boor because he used quantum physics to explain Rutherford model. So in that sense believe Ernest Rutherford is number three. They both were n extremely important part of the atomic model because they both proved J. J. Thompson model completely wrong.
Rutherford proved that an atom contains a nucleus and protons and electrons, while Boor proved his model by using quantum physics. Then number four is James Chadwick because he proved that atoms contain neutrons by using his radiation experiments. This was an important discovery in a sense that he proved to Boor and Rutherford that an atom does not only include protons and electrons. J. J. Thompson is number five in my book because although he was very important, his model as extremely off and he did not have as much evidence to back up his theory.