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Especially in times of high emotion, it is essential that public administrators take into account organizational objectives as well as the impact their session has on society to achieve a balanced success. The major informal groups this study will focus on include: Mayor Rudy Giuliani and other high- level administrators, firemen, policemen, and families of the victims. Although there were others involved, these groups had the most influence on the case.

Also, due to the mass amount of death and the inherent comradely that exists amongst policemen and firemen ideally and within this case, it is vital that public administrators strongly consider the emotional impact of all decisions made in a situation of this magnitude. History On September 1 1 , 2001, terrorist flew two planes into the World Trade Center buildings. After the buildings collapsed, over 3,000 Americans were killed and many additional bodies were trapped in the debris.

This event had a profound effect on the lives of Americans and forever changed their outlook on the adverse effects of war. The main issue in this study involves the informal groups; specifically how they interacted with each other and their influence on public administration, especially clean-up initiatives. The clean- up was complicated by differing views on how it should have been carried out by the different groups. About a month after the attacks on the World Trade Center, fighting occurred between two of the different groups at the site.

Policemen felt that the firemen were deemed heroes even though many of them did not participate in helping rescue people from the World Trade Center. Firemen were especially angry due to losing many of their colleagues in the rescue efforts and this was only exasperated when a demonstration they orchestrated went awry and violence ensued. Firemen began a march on the clean-up site when they were denied full access to search for their lost colleagues. They were arrested by the policemen and charges were initially lied against them.

Ironworker took part in this demonstration on the side of the firemen and Mayor Giuliani ordered that they be identified and terminated due to their participation. The firemen then demanded to meet with Giuliani and requested to include the family members of the fallen firemen. This meeting was eventually overcome with emotions and Giuliani earned many infamous names such as “Scoop and Dump” due to this meeting. As a result, Giuliani raised the search team to 75 workers per shift with no authority besides searching for the deceased.

Mayor Giuliani and administrators from his administration met overall times with affected parties to no avail and only seemed to make the situation at hand worse. Analysis All of the informal groups involved in the aftermath of the attacks on the World Trade Center were reacting in a manner that seemed natural to their group. However, this manner depended wholly on what group an individual belonged to. The different emotions within each group caused issues with other groups involved.

Policemen resented the idea that firefighters who were not involved in the rescue efforts were deemed heroes by society. Giuliani was resented by the families of the dead firemen because they felt he id not do enough to excavate their loved ones remains. These groups are viewed upon as a whole without taking into account individual perspectives. This is unique to public administration because it takes into account like- minded individuals and how they are controlled even if they may disagree.

In other words, those on the sidelines may be forced into action if the team deems it necessary. The respective opinions of individuals was not voiced. From a public administration approach, Mayor Giuliani should have responded in a manner that was more sympathetic to the general idea of the public and the wishes of those heavily involved. In an event of this magnitude, costs should not have played such an influential role in his decisions. Among his top priorities should have been to restore a sense of order and control to the situation, and his response did not include either.

Giuliani as a public administrator should have also taken into account the suggestions of the fire department. Had the NYC Fire Department decided to initiate a strike due to their unhappiness at that time, the entire city would have lost faith in their government to function effectively and protect society. The most vital lesson learned from this tragic event should have been to sites to the opinions of those affected. Charges against the firemen were not pursued. They, however, could not do anything but search for their fallen colleagues.

Firefighters resented Mayor Giuliani because they thought that he was everything that was wrong with government and politics. Widows also resented Mayor Giuliani because they believed he did not care about their deceased and was cold-hearted. Policemen still resented firefighters due to their belief that many were false heroes and their attack on the policemen during the demonstration. It seems reasonable to believe that had the city taken reasonable measures to incorporate the views and opinions of the parties involved, much of this resentment could have been avoided.

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